ET Spirit Guidebook Planet Information Network

ET Spirit

Community Online Guidebook

By Theresa J Thurmond Morris


Theresa Morris dba TJ Morris ACIR ACO-ACE

Theresa Morris dba
TJ Morris ACIR
ACO-ACE

Planet Information ET WORK ACO Culture Club TJ Morris ACIR

Planet Information
ET WORK
ACO Culture Club
TJ Morris ACIR

Copyright Page

This book ET Spirit Community Online Guidebook is published by TJ Morris ACO LLC and owned by Theresa J Thurmond Morris aka Theresa J Morris, KY USA.

Self-Help – Ascension, Education, Spirituality,

  • ISBN-13: 978-1496013613
  • E book Number
  • ISBN-10: 1496013611
  • TJMorris ACIR ACO
  • Note:

This information can be used by individuals or to share in groups, classes, seminars or in adjacent with our articles and by-laws in the book called “How to Social Network Metaphysics”.

ACE-ACO-ACIR TJ Morris ACO Social Service Club

ACE-ACO-ACIR
TJ Morris ACO
Social Service Club

This book is to be read as a reference or cover to cover.

ACO acronym Associates Cooperative OrganizationACE+FOLKLIFE+LOGO

Ascension Center Organization, Author’s  Club Org, ACO Culture Club and in m co-creation with ACE, ACE Folklife Club, Adult’s Continuing Education, ACE Metaphysical Institute, and ACE Nonprofit Inc. A Foundation for Associates Cooperation as a Community Online Practicing Skills.  Mail: tj@tjmorrisACO.com
 ET Spirit awakened extraterrestrial Soul

1. You know you are destined to do great things

2. You have a way of being selfless and desire to contribute to humankind

3. You are conscious of all other beings around you and honor their existence as your own

4. You are kind, loving, and respectful

5. You love a higher power inside yourself and in others

You are an ET Spirit Awakened Soul!

ET Spirit Credo

I would not interfere with any creed of yours or want to appear that I have all the cures. There is so much to know, so much to do, so many things seem real, and so many things are true. The way that I may go may not be the best path for you. I give this spark of life as a spark of light to be, to guide you through the dark but not tell you what to see.


Ascension Avatar Masters Mission Statement

We the members of the Ascension Center ascribe to the highest standards of excellence with regard to the uplifting of humankind by providing spiritual and education awareness.

Services Provided

We share services as private and group counseling, study groups, classes, seminars, written publications, audio/visual products and workshop materials. These are our way of offering our guidance and assistance as a synthesis of ancient wisdoms and new thought teachings and philosophies.

We provide faith, hope, love and light for the sustaining of our culture and traditions among our members on planet earth and in space the place of our former family and home.

History Guide

Description

We are the ones who educate, serve, and teach. We are the ones who bring magic into light. We are they who share our ET Spirit among others and bring forth the hope, love, and light of wisdom in our way of being. We are about being, doing, and having that which is good for all. We believe in the attainment of higher spiritual meaning by and through continuous education for sharing and exercising our mind and our bodies through the spirit. We recognize various forms of consciousness, sub-conscious, and super-consciousness, supreme-consciousness inside and outside of us all. We recognize we are microcosms inside the macrocosm.

We are an organization of ascension awakened ET spirit beings also known on planet Earth-Gaia-Sophia as Ascension Avatar Masters.

We are servicing an organization of patrons through the United States and the world. Subscribers receive a monthly report/newsletter of information as posted on our website and are given books, classes, seminars, and other materials published by the Ascension Centers as ACE Nonprofit Inc. under the Ascension Universal Life.

Offering

We offer a spiritual gathering place for private and group counseling, classes, publications, seminars, and other spiritual and educational products and services.

Classes and seminars are formed to discuss experiences, materials, revelations, and teachings of transformation in individuals and our communities. We continue to expand our transformations through consciousness as well as for healing the planet with love and light in a trusted environment.

Each member is offered the opportunity to accept a lifetime membership. Their name will be placed in our perpetual book of all ascribed members of the Ascension. This book will be called the “Book of the Living”.  Each member will be continually supported in our ET Spirit Family.

Each member will be continually supported in their spiritual and educational growth, self-improvement, Speechcraft, communication, and leadership abilities.

Support is given each member to live in a balanced life of body-mind-spirit sharing in the birth-life-death process. This includes the whole life living philosophy of emotional, mental, physical, and spiritual well-being.

Whole life living is making the world a better place for all. Donations are welcome and encouraged to appreciate the work we are doing to co-create the world and all that come here to work and enjoy leisure and sleep time. We are all appreciated and welcomed by our peers. We share as colleagues including those who desire to share in the Ascension Universal Life Unity Church Meetings in our Ascension Centers Organization Ministries. We counsel as we share Spiritual Science of Metaphysics. Some are ministering angels of the Ascension Age. Some are ministers of the clergy, while others are lightworkers and truthseekers.

Some of our members are students and teachers. Some are in the helping vocations such as clergy workers, clinicians, chiropractors, college professors, medical doctors, psychic counselors, psychologists, nurses, police officers, Reiki healers, school teachers, social workers, technicians, and other “helpful” positions.

Some are astrologists, mystics, oracles, philosophers, prophets, sages, seers, shaman, tarot readers and other titles in the working world professions which share time on earth for continued growth and support of individuals and groups who desire to co-create together as spiritual entrepreneurs.

We also have conferences where we share similar interests and recognize our peers in our growing Ascension Age Community.

ET Seminars and Divine Expo are both co-creations of our members who joined together in our community online practicing skills on the Internet and World Wide Web in Cyberspace.

We would like to recognize the history of both the Internet and World Wide Web in cyberspace and include it for your knowledge as a convenience to our members to all recognize the support of others contributions in the back of this book…

Our Universal government of the Galaxy Federation will be enforced.

Aliens Ascension Age Core Values – Tectonic Economics

Artistic Values – Tectonic Economics of the Ascension Age

ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION

Promotes Health & Prosperity For All!

Ascension

Intelligence Summit

For Healthy debates breed creative solutions.

 Andromeda Galaxy Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit -

Alliance WITH THE

Milky Way Galaxy Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit

~and~

Galactic Federation Alliance with Andromeda Galaxy

Artistic Values of our Human Species.

 Artistic Values are also called aesthetic Values. These express pleasure with a person or object.

 Artistic Values address the importance of rich values of great importance.

 There may be beauty, good taste, symmetry, and the opposites.

 We all hold civilized judgments. As civilized people, we call fall subject to the “ALL” species as the “Critical Mass Mind”.

 In our infinite wisdom we all share around the world our collective involvement in the preservation of our art, culture, literature and music. With these four creations we all express our own taste with or without proper training with complimentary skill concepts.

 Artistic values are often brought into play in forensic events even if only indirectly.

 For instance; building all cars for fossilized fuel consumption we were not anticipating the future intent

of depleting our fuel resources. Therefore, we are now dealing with alternate fuel sources such as electricity for our automobiles and trains along with other transportation equipment needs.

 We may experience betrayal and half-truths of what we now consider covert affairs in the ET UFO Community and we desire to have full disclosure of what all our governments around the world have chosen to keep covert and not disclosed to the public.

 We have decided that it is no longer in our best interest to keep the information regarding aliens and UFOS and USOS under the secret need to know only cooperation of all foreign and domestic affairs.

 When the UFOs of aliens are already in the minds and efforts of the general public this will affect the

Critical mass mind and what we now also call the global brain of the entire global community.

 If everyone is experiencing change and acceptance for the entire world as mysteries of the mystical spot

We may regard the future global brain as that which we may experience as serendipity.

 This means that many people begin using the same energy and getting the same ideas from that of the “Global Brain” or the critical mass mind which drives the entire force and power of the essence we call the Energy Grid in space and on the planet earth in the vibrations and sound waves we can all receive.

 This allows people to receive unlimited thoughts for change and for the imagination to work at its best

With the overall intent of making the world a better place to live for all.

 Free will is without equal on this planet and in space among all the humanoid sentient intelligent being

Species. The energy of freewill is without equal and is out chosen essence for the creation and of the

Creation of the “ALL” in the “I AM” of each of us.

One might say that our free will of life is what is inside each of our minds and the essential driving force

In all of us which is the power of our origin we call God/Goddess as the source of all creations or as that

Which is represented as the “ALL” and the “NATURE’S GOD”.

 Nature’s God also is involved with the environmental protection which is most important for the entire planet and species to survive. This is why our ancestors all were in tune and engrained with the story of all that came from space and when we all think of the creator we always think above and vertical as up in space.

Meaning just about all tribes of people on the earth will raise their finger and point to the sky when asked where we come from or where God is located. This is essential to the understanding of our fellow humankind on the planet we call earth. We are all living here and we call ourselves earthlings in space.

This word separates all of us from others who are of the same humanoid species just from other planets in other galaxies in space.

 Freedom of Speech is accepted and yet we are all taught to be humble and act as Goodwill Ambassadors for our own specific cultures and planets. This freedom of speech by all can be more important than the foreign national model of national security. We must all learn when to speak and when to listen and when it is time to join into a conversation about the participation in the future of humanity on all planets to be inhabited in the future.

 We are now earthlings who will be invited into a planetary conversation about the Galactic Federation and what we can expect to become in the near future over the next fifty years.

 We are to be personal and share our professional skills. We shall share our desires, motivations, talents and hope that our usual greed of our species does not come into play.

The President of the United States is to be tested. The heart of the North American continent in past world wars has been both mother and father to the new world.

This is done as is the same set of values and rules that are understood as informal and formal for future global tectonic economics. We share space in the cosmos and honor all tectonic economic plates as separate and apart. However, we must share that we stand with five spacecraft on earth for monitoring and sending back to the Galaxy Federation and then up to the Supreme High Council that which happens on the planet earth.

The world we know still has gun runners, terrorist’s cells, and other hoodlums that are to be told how to become future community citizens of space. We must teach them and instruct them in the proper way to share time on earth with other citizens of this planet earth.

 We know that the past has been about policing those who did not fit into society and may have done horrible deeds such as killing and murder of another being on the planet. Those who inflict harm on themselves or other beings must be taught how the mind works and what is expected on a working class planet.

This is why we always begin teaching all children from the early age of two years old by professionals who are engaged in the planetary instruction for the entire Galactic Federation. Two years to twenty years of earth years are for personal training in the earthly affairs of education to become a global citizen. Twenty to twenty-five are accepted earth time in annual years for higher studies. Prepare for positions twenty-five to thirty in apprenticeships in positions of leadership and authority. Graduate high school at eighteen and begin twelve years for mastering a doctor’s in philosophy. Talented skills may prevail in art, clergy, culture, education, science, technology, history, folklife, and metaphysics. Talented skills may be taught in certification programs for certain working positions without serving a full twelve years in education for certain professions. This includes the social and helpful skills of social entrepreneurs and personnel and physical information in security in our military on earth and in space. The cosmos will be protected from those who would inflict harm on the planet and species.

In the past all those in power have been accustomed to secrecy of the conversations held among those who are of the celestial realm or from space.

We now assist in the investigations of all beings no matter what the demographics and logistics.

We can utilize the satellites from above for policing the entire planet. Sleeper cells in the world are always suspected. We have global concerns for planetary security.

 Scanning all public geographical locations in the future will be part of our casing places for anyone who

may pose a threat to harm themselves or others. We are going to share in the future policing of the planet in public places as well as in our local communities at the town, city, region, and state levels.

Then we shall address those in charge of each tectonic place on the plates that travel on the surface of the planet. We understand that there are already names given for the Tectonic Plates and we can abide by the use of the names already used and in place.

 Value judgments are highly elevated and relevant due to our curiosity. Intelligence relationships are delicate.

We share that when one agency on earth decides to participate in value judgments in the intelligence community it has already shared in the discussion and debate in their own internal operations before their own final vote of what is to be presented as a proposal is voted on in their own tribe and community.

 The final vote for the entire planet after close discussion and debate is given on each Tectonic Plate as this will be how the future of the planet will be divided up for equal votes based on supply and demand and the entire population count on the planet based on the demographics and logistics of the Tectonic Plates.

 When one agency of a Tectonic Plate Origin is chosen to represent the population on that particular plate we can then share other levels of living within the global commerce that is presently called world trade and commerce one earth. This is to specify a policy change for the Tectonic Plate due to the needs of the many with a representative we shall call the Director of Chief Agent who has been voted in as the spokesperson for that particular Tectonic Plate Division on Earth.

 To specify policy change in a species that deals with the past generations decisions may become enhanced in the future due to the needed upgrades for today’s modern time’s one earth. The new upgrades were scripted and talked about on earth in the past by who others on earth now realize were their own ancestors from space and brought here to the planet earth.

 Our success in forensics of our species was enhanced by understanding the nature of our needs by well qualified decision makers who are called the Supreme Allied Council. We have the Galactic Federation of Twelve elected officials who oversee the galaxies and all the space fleets who actually secure the territories.

 The Galactic Federation in turn answers to the Supreme Allied Council above for this universe and all others.

The Universe has then a Higher Council that answers to the level of the Fifth Dimension and so on and so forth on up the chain of command in the Omniverse.

 This is how it has always been done by our forefathers and ancestors in space who are called the humanoids as the sentient intelligent being species. We have empires in space.

When relevant values of conflict in nature occur we assess our priorities which have been determined in the past to save our lives. The roles of value judgments gives rise to opulence and ultra-nuevo of those who are elevated due to their longevity in space and in time.

We have those who are of the game of life affairs in the past and some of these would give rise to romance in our cultures of proliferation. We have come to question our feelings and all want to benefit from the survival of our species without causing undue concern and stress of the emotional nature of humanoids.

 We all have emotions and feelings as humanoids this is obvious. However we desire to become more diplomatic as ambassadors of goodwill among all our humanoids species and honor the cultural traditions of all planets.

We shall learn what we can all benefit from sharing that we all must have both male and female interaction of our species in order to survive.

Therefore we must vouch and concur to concede to our friends and relations and use social networking and friendly interactions with all humanoid species of both male and female of the species regardless of looks and desires. We must learn to upstream our permanency in the galaxies and in the universes.

We must intercede that the procreation of all humanoids as sentient intelligent beings is a permanent

arrangement in space.

 From there we have decided to discuss among all planets humanoids hot to maintain the survival of all our humanoid clans as one species among all galaxies among all universes in space.

We use the same terms in the lower realms of existence as humanoid sentient intelligent being species in the cosmos universally, multiversally,  metaversally, and xenoversally in terms inside the Omniverse. The two higher realms we honor as the Alphaverse and Omegaverse as the sixth and seventh realms of heaven. Those two realms are reserved for the Supreme-Conscious.

 Some may still object to the universal authority which is made of women or females as well as men and males. It is obvious that we must not disregard this as an old spirit of the ancients that were full of spite and jealousy. We have learned about these petty emotions and feel that those on earth can rise above these ancient ways and terms of all our ancestors.

 We must advance our specie and learn to operate as teams of both the male and female of all the galaxy tribes of our species of humanoids.

 We shall learn to congregate and communicate with honor and share our morals as ambassadors of goodwill for we will be seen by those who are not bionic but may resemble humanoids yet have no soul.

 Therefore in the future, the world will require that the local, states, regions include the entire

Federal laws and legislatures passing policies that are created in administrative branches of government

That deal with the breaches in society.

The foreign transactions for the few and for the plenty in the all have the alien needs and alien alliances

Which will edify and affect the entire future of the Galaxy Federation in Space? Our foreign alien alliances

Include the earth and earthlings now as our guests in space due to the young beings who have been nurtured and created on the working class planet called earth.

 We have come to repair the change sin in everything in the future.

The future is always and forever and those who have been on earth were told that

We would come and share and repair the eternal forever which is a long time to remember and some who have been born in the last few thousand years have forgotten.

Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit – Earth Tectonic Economics

 We have Current Tectonic Plates on Earth that will share in the future Geographic Power Status.

We all care about health and prosperity and job sustainability for a working class planet is crucial

To the survival of the humanoid sentient intelligent being species. Therefore, there is a new development in a rather old regime that is based upon our ancient civilizations past history with our new and modern technological welfare for the entire planet’s sustainability based on geographics and logistics.

 In the academic working world in education and the making of future doctors in philosophy or Ph.D.’s,

We will need more categories in the future in order to work in Tectonic Economics and Global Sustainability dealing in feeding the entire population of our 7 billion plus point.

 It is said that we are working towards change to begin with the next presidential election scheduled

In the United States of America the main global power of the working class planet at the present time.

However, without the future being decided at the working class level with jobs and sustainability for all including health and welfare issues it is unlikely that the power can be sustained at the nation level.

Therefore the future will lie with more integrated leaders with the United Nations for the entire Global

Economy. The future is at stake and there are those in the entire global populace that realize the entire

Humanoid species relies on work.

 The working class planet is made up of the working class people as the majority. This must be taken into

account when figuring out the future of humankind on earth.

Planet & Space

Sustainability issues include the following:

1.

First with “Water” as the main concern of humankind.

2.

Second is “Oxygen“or the other way around.

3.

Third is “Food“and keep in natural and organic to the planet.  We must maintain a natural environment for our sustenance.

4.

Fourth is “Clothing”.

Includes clothing, work uniforms, for work, skills, talents for jobs and

5.

Fifth is “Shelter”

Homes for our families and for ALL including Animals, plants, Humanoids, Minerals

The Fifth includes

Spacecraft on Earth and in Space.

6.

Sixth is “Health” maintenance of body-mind-spirit and emotional body for us all on our home plant and in space.

7.

 Seventh is “Communication” for all of us on the planet and in space. We now know staying in communication is of vital importance of our species. “Communication” purposes

is taken into account with the important “Education” to accomplish all of the requirements by our species on earth and in space. We need education to perform sustainability of all on planet and in space.

8.

Eight is “Prosperity” and thriving in our Work & Monetary Gain including leisure and sleep time.

9.

Ninth is “Transportation”. We recognize that we are a mobile society of citizens and transportation is part of our daily activity in most all life styles that entail work, leisure, and home life styles.

To and from “Work”, “Leisure”, “Home”, to obtain products and services as needed and required  on planet and in space.

 “NINE” working class requirements. While Tenth is Faith Based

10.

Tenth is “Faith”.

One’s personal faith does deal with their own whole life living in body-mind-spirit and emotional health and well-being. We are all microcosms in the macrocosm.

The entire world’s population is based on this and then comes

11.

Eleventh this is “Security” of all of the “TEN REQUIRED COMMANDMENTS” in order to sustain

A working class planet. We share security for the planet and species, as well as, the entire cosmos. Cosmos seven heavens levels and dimensions is a constant.

12.

In Global Tectonic Economics,

Twelfth is “Acknowledgement” that we are not alone in the cosmos of the seven heavens and dimensions as realms we call the universe, multiverse, metaverse, xenoverse, omniverse, Alphaverse, Omegaverse, multi-dimensions of our spiritual science new thought teachings and including the ancient past, present, and future in what we call time and space and working space-time.

Global Tectonic Economics takes in all twelve for the desires of the Higher Council and the Supreme Beings as the Supreme High Beings above. As above so below which is said to be the best way to view the earth from space as extraterrestrial in origin. We share their “Bird’s Eye View from Above” on how to govern the planet while in the Working Class Planet Status. Class one is now at the level of acceptance that others above exist in space as below on planet earth. Acknowledgement is the first step in the evolutionary process of becoming a true part of the overall Omniversal Alliance Family.

Alliance in the Cosmos with the Alien ET UFO Community Crew

Sharing the Alien ET UFO Experience as the Inner Awakening Crew

Take control of your inner spirit and awaken the conscious mind to the observer inside that is connected to all things, all people, all places, and all things.

The younger generations who came after Star Trek, Star Wars, Star Gate generations call this the Energy Force.

Become Cosmos Metaphysicians

Share as ET Spirit

•        Engage your awakened observer inside and write a book!

•        We are all the authors of our own life stories.

  • We are the creator, writer, designer, choreographer, actor, and director.
  • We do it all as the observer while we are spirits inside the body.
  • We are all consciousness inside the unity consciousness that is the balance of essence energy inside that which was created in the beginning that has always been.
  • We allow those who came before us as our ancestors who may choose to guide us.
  • Teach yourself and analyze everything you do from with inside as an observer.

Awaken to the greater possibility that we are all something greater both inside our own body-mind-spirit of which we call the mental-emotional-physical-spiritual (MEPS). We are also a neurological being with a physiology that requires us to feed our energy so that our physical will not starve to death and die.

We also are to feed ourselves spiritually and to grow our spirits from the basic new soul and re-birth to that of attaining a higher level in this lifetime and the one to come.

We are all a soul having the use of a body-mind-spirit that is sharing the birth-life-death experience with outer selves on the same planet.

We shall honor the golden rule and know that we treat others the way we desire to be treated.

We know that Newton’s Third Law of Motion is for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

We are to believe that there are some bad demons in this world that can enter one’s own body-mind-spirit and act out their emotions if one allows this to happen.

We can go anywhere we want inside our minds to paint our thoughts.

We have an inner thought process where we can use thoughts to create visions.

We are the observer of the pictures we create in our minds.

We are not our minds we are spirit.

We are spiritual beings.

We are sentient intelligent humanoid beings.

We are all a part of the sea of souls and we must learn to go with the flow.

We are all energy as essence of the one and all.

We now share various particles, waves, vibrations, in

Various forms which are immortal.

We experience waves in motion and sometimes we calm our waters and there is no breeze when we are being still just to know.

We learn to let go and let God. We are all more than the total some of our parts and our past. We are both made up of both male and female and in order to share a soul we always will remain so in the cosmos.

GOD & GODDESS

The highest level of consciousness of the eternal immortal essence as the oldest which was in the beginning which has no end as a never ending circle is that which has always been. We do not question that which has always been in the eternal bond of the Alphaverse and Omegaverse outside the Omniverse…

God and Goddess are in us all and the inner awakened awareness of their presence during our meditation and yoga can allow us to hear the divine guidance. We all have guides and our inner messenger may be our own observer or our higher consciousness.

We are deeper than our own conscious. We are deeper than our own thought process when we can hear ourselves think and then we try to say what we should be doing and we hear another voice speak to us like the still small inner voice we know that our minds are trying to tell us what to do. We need to use this type of awakened awareness and learn to say STOP when we are overcome with thoughts and emotions and feel anxiety and fear coming upon us.

We can know that S is for Stop. T is for Take3 deep breaths and smile in all parts of one’s own body energy which will assist our nervous and immune system and laugh at our situation when appropriate.

We can share O is for Observe. Observe the situation we are in and our surroundings and the sensations we are experiencing or enduring.

We can then say P as in Proceed with kindness and compassion and persevere with love in our hearts and have an open mind and heart to what we are experiencing in the now.

We can calm ourselves and others around us simply by thinking the opposite of whatever we feel as anger, anxiety, confusion, or fear that is causing the problem.

Self-image is what you think of you. Image is what others perceive of you. We may or may not agree with another’s perception of what we are projecting but what other’s think and perceive is not something we are here to control and it is not our business to care about what others think of us when we are in a peaceful loving knowing and understanding place going about our own business.

We know that we are the observer here as an explorer to find out who we are, why we are here, and where we go when we leave this existence. We know that Karma is the Echo of what energy we put out to others. We expand our positive energy consciousness and when we allow ourselves to feel fear we contract and feel negative energy consciousness.

Spiritual Advisers and mentors are simply guides forging a path and leaving a trail for others to find if they use their freewill and free choice to do so. No one can make another do anything unless they want too at the mind and spirit level.

We are trained on earth to take ownership of our own actions and learn to not react unless it is a natural response to danger that crosses our path that is life threatening then we may react to the situation of which may be called death.

We inside our own spiritual soul self-know that we feel as though we are the center of our own universe of which we try to control. When one let’s go and let’s god then we are turning over our power to a higher control and we allow the force to work through us.

This can be a deep spiritual awakening or re-awakening to the opening up of all our chakras which are the portals to our kundalini energy that drives our spiritual force up and down out spine.

We shall desire to elect team leaders on earth who come to terms with their balance in their lives of positive and negative and allow the flow of energy of the higher power to lead them and their crews while on earth.

Working with ET Spirit the Akashic Field – A Field to Let go and let God is a popular way to share in co-creation. We share this ET Spirit Community Online Guidebook with those who are true Lightworkers and Truthseekers of the Ascension Age. Ascension Universal Life Ministries are in an alliance with those who share in the Unity of us all, for us all. As above so below among our Ascension Avatar Master Metaphysicians, Clergy as our Ministers, Pastors, and Reverends, All other Metaphysicians,  Mystics, Oracles, Psychic Counselors, Prophets, Philosophers, Sages, Seers, Shaman, and all other titles as afforded by the Ascension Centers Organization, ACO, ACE Nonprofit Inc, ACE Metaphysical Institute, Universal Life Church,

Ascension Universal Life Church as the AULC and more.

More Later… in the future series of the Ascension Age.

Ascension Universal Life Church

We of the Ascension Masters now share with all those who desire to come together in ET spirit with those who are the Ascension Universal Life Masters and Members. We share with various non-denominational Universal Life and Unity Churches around the world.

We live within our own ways of ascension culture and traditions to be expanded and explored. We believe we are all here on earth to expand consciousness and to share in what life has to offer to sustain both planet and species. We recognize we are here to both grow and maintain our planet and species. We share in knowing that we are expanding our ascension universal life awakened awareness of being conscious of who we are, what we are, why we are here, and where we go when we leave this planet.

We share in the whole life living process of body-mind-spirit sharing the birth-life-death process together while here on the planet among humanoid sentient intelligent being species.

We gather to provide spiritual and educational awareness. We share in ET seminars and a Divine Expo Conference annually to elect officers and to share in fellowship. We meet monthly for sharing and caring in our contributions to society and to share in fund raising campaigns and worthy causes.

We contribute to the world as humanists and visionaries with our synthesis of ancient wisdoms and new though teachings.

Rev. Theresa J Thurmond Morris

1984-Houston Texas Gold Pyramid Ordination for the future creation of Ascension Centers – Hawaii (1990-1993) and alliance with real Ascension Universal Life Church or AULC. ACO Ascension Center Organization and ACE – Ace Folklife and ACE Nonprofit Inc.

The Association Cooperation Ordinations (ACO)

An Alliance was formed to honor the Unity way of life for spiritual metaphysical churches on earth with Reverend Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris to communicate the desires of the ET Spirit in this Ascension Age. Ascension Age was foretold in the Aquarian Age and New Age teachings and understandings of the new thought teachings.

Many of the Esoteric and Metaphysical Teachings in books and in channels and clergy have foretold of this time of the coming again of the ET Spirit. Many master teachers are recognized of the writings of the past.

Unity Church

Not to be confused with the Unitarian Church, the Unification Church, or Unitarian theology in Christianity.

Origin         1889

Kansas City, Missouri, United States

Unity, known informally as Unity Church, is a spiritual philosophical movement within the wider New Thought movement and is best known to many through its Daily Word devotional publication. It describes itself as a “positive, practical Christianity” which “teaches the effective daily application of the principles of Truth taught and exemplified by Jesus Christ” and promotes “a way of life that leads to health, prosperity, happiness, and peace of mind.”

Unity operates several programs, including a prayer program called Silent Unity, the Unity Society of Practical Christianity, Unity School of Christianity, Unity Institute, the Office of Prayer Research, the Association of Unity Churches, and Unity House, the church’s publishing arm. The home of Unity is at Unity Village, Missouri, a suburb of Kansas City.

It was founded in Kansas City, Missouri in 1889 by Charles Fillmore (1854–1948) and Myrtle Fillmore (1845–1931) after Mrs. Fillmore had been cured of her tuberculosis, she believed, by spiritual healing. This resulted in the Fillmore’s studying spiritual healing, and being influenced by Emma Curtis Hopkins and Mary Baker Eddy (the founder of Christian Science).

Unity School of Christianity, shares their insights through magazines, books, and pamphlets and through Silent Unity, a telephone and mail service that offered people help through prayer and counseling. This growth led to several moves within Kansas City, and eventually, after World War I, to the development of Unity Village, 15 miles from Kansas City. The movement was led, in part, after Charles Fillmore’s death, by the Fillmore’s’ sons and grandchildren.

Overview of Unity

Unity School of Christianity

Unity describes itself as a worldwide Christian organization which teaches a positive approach to life, seeking to accept the good in all people and events. Unity began as a healing ministry and healing has continued to be its main emphasis for over 100 years. It teaches that all people can improve the quality of their lives through thought.

Unity describes itself as having no particular creed, no set dogma, and no required ritual. It maintains that there is good in every approach to God and in every religion that is filling someone’s needs. Its position holds that one should not focus on past sins but on the potential good in all.

Unity emphasizes spiritual healing, prosperity and practical Christianity in its teachings. Illness is considered to be curable by spiritual means, but Unity does not reject or resist medical treatments.

 It is an inclusive faith that welcomes diversity of belief. Unity is accepting of the beliefs of others.

Churches fall under the auspices of Unity Worldwide Ministries although each church is autonomous in its practices.

Basic teachings

New Thought Beliefs

Divinity

Omnipresent God •

Ultimate Spirit • none • Higher consciousness •

Beliefs

Law of attraction • Life force

Actions

Affirmations • Affirmative prayer • Creative visualization • Personal magnetism • Positive thinking

Glossary

Five basic ideas that Unity sets forward as its main belief system are:

“God is the source and creator of all. There is no other enduring power. God is good and present everywhere.”

“We are spiritual beings, created in God’s image. The spirit of God lives within each person; therefore, all people are inherently good.”

“We create our life experiences through our way of thinking.”

“There is power in affirmative prayer, which we believe increases our connection to God.”

“Knowledge of these spiritual principles is not enough. We must live them.”

Unity is devoted to demonstrating that the teachings of Jesus Christ can be lived every day. Unity’s basic position is that the true “Church” is a “state of consciousness in mankind.”

Unity teaches that each person is a unique expression of God that each person is sacred, and each person is worthy. Unity emphasizes the creative power of thought in people’s experience, and encourages taking personal responsibility to choose life-affirming thoughts, words and actions, holding that when people do this, they experience a more fulfilling and abundant life.

H. Emilie Cady’s 1896 book Lessons in Truth, A Course of Twelve Lessons in Practical Christianity is considered a core text of Unity.

God

God is understood as spiritual energy which is everywhere present and is available to all people. In the Unity view, God is not a being in the sky that is capable of anger. The presence of God only seeks to express the highest good through everyone and everything.

According to Unity founder Charles Fillmore, God is spirit, the loving source of everything. God is one power, all good, and wisdom, everywhere present.

God is Divine Energy, continually creating, expressing and sustaining all creation. In God we live and move and have our being.

Jesus

Unity proclaims the divinity of Jesus, but also proclaims that we are all children of God and share that divine potential. Unity believes that Jesus expressed his divine potential and sought to show others how to do the same. Unity sees Jesus as a master teacher of universal Truth and one who demonstrated the Way.

Unity uses the term “Christ” to mean the divinity in all people. Jesus is the great example of the Christ in expression.

The nature of humanity

Unity teaches that we are individual, external expressions of God. Our essential nature is divine and therefore we are inherently good. Our purpose is to express our divine potential as demonstrated by Jesus. The more we awaken to our divine nature, the more fully God expresses in and through our lives.

 Salvation, in the Unity view, is found in conscious understanding of one’s innate divinity and then putting this knowledge into practice in everyday life.

The Bible

Unity founders, Charles and Myrtle Fillmore, studied the Bible as history and allegory. They interpreted it as a metaphysical representation of each soul’s evolutionary journey toward spiritual awakening. Unity understands the Bible as a complex collection of writings compiled over many centuries. The Bible is a valuable spiritual resource, but is understood as a reflection of the comprehension and inspiration of the writers and their times.

Affirmative prayer

Affirmative prayer is understood, in Unity, as the highest form of creative thought. It includes the release of negative thoughts and holding in mind statements of spiritual truth. Through meditation and prayer, we can experience the presence of God. Prayer and meditation heighten our awareness of truth and thereby transform our lives.

Prayer is valuable not because it alters the circumstances and conditions of your life, but because it alters you.

Unity teaches that it is helpful to pray with the belief that we have already received all that we need. In this view, through prayer the mind is renewed and the body transformed. The awareness that we are conscious creators of our lives has the power to make the bridge between the old Christianity where we are “sinners” to the new understanding that we are “learners.”

The Unity school of Christianity holds that prayer is not a way to inform God of one’s troubles or to change God in any way, but rather, prayer is properly used to align with the power that is God.

Relationship to Christianity

Although Unity is not a traditional Christian teaching, the foundations are based on the teachings of Jesus and the Bible.

Unity stresses its agreements, not differences, with Christians.

It has been generally accepted that Jesus’ great works were miracles and that the power to do miracles was delegated to His immediate followers only. In recent years many of Jesus’ followers have inquired into His healing methods, and they have found that healing is based on universal mental and spiritual laws which anyone can utilize who will comply with the conditions involved in these laws.

Unity considers itself to be a nonsectarian educational institution although Unity ministers do complete a prescribed program of courses and training. Due to the interdenominational nature of Unity, its influence extends beyond its membership.

Notable members

Well known persons affiliated with Unity include Betty White, Eleanor Powell, Wally Amos, Licensed Unity Teacher Ruth Warrick, Barbara Billingsley, Theodore Schneider, Erykah Badu, Matt Hoverman, author Victoria Moran, Patricia Neal, Holmes Osborne and Esther Williams

In March 2008 Maya Angelou stated that she planned to spend part of the year studying at the Unity Church. In 2005 she attended a Unity Church service in Miami and decided that day to “go into a kind of religious school and study” on her 80th birthday.

See also

Universal Foundation for Better Living

Universal Church and Ascension Universal Life Church of ACO Organization, ET Seminars, Divine Expo

How to Social Network Metaphysics by Theresa J Morris

Universal Life Church

We are now a Universal Church. What do we mean when we say we are a Universal Church? We have churches all around the world. The sun never sets on the Universal Life Church. This is why we call it a Universal Church.

We have, within this church, a very liberal type of religion, but, we also have conservative types of people. I have never met a person that disagrees with our doctrine. We feel that our doctrine is universal. I believe that every living person is a part of the Universal Life. When they become conscious that they are part of Universal Life, they will look for people like minded. We are sure that the Universal Life Church is the one church that satisfies the majority of people. We are now looking and studying to find a way that all people can come together and work for the good of all people.

Rev. Kirby J. Hensley

Founder

1959-1999

ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION

ET UFO Taken Up Story Assimilation Living Omnipresence in us All

 Where is the knowledge that the ET UFO Community supplies taking us? Why are we now being made aware of certain dates in time?

What was so important about the dates 11-11-11 and 12-21-12 on earth?

Will we all agree to share the same path as one humanoid sentient intelligent being species?

 What the future holds is now being created by each and every one of us.

No one is more or less important than the other for it takes all of us to plan out that which is called

The entire species of this planet. We all matter.

 Sharing the future and the past of one’s own life is like living two lives at the same time in the present.

We can all remember and we all have memories that make up who we are on the inside and who we project to others on the outside of our own body-mind-spirits.

 Now that we are entering the Ascension Age of Enlightenment we can all now be allowed to grasp the

photographic images that are now in the Web on the Internet. We can all reach that which in the past was only obtainable by those chosen of earth to be trained as the Avatar Ascension Masters.

I believe that Most of our Avatar Masters of our past history on earth were all of the same creative

Divine omnipotence that is in us all.

 We all have chosen our own way to think and believe. We may all share that thinking is not believing and vice versa. It is up to each and every one of us to learn to be who we believe we have been in the past and who we shall become in the future all at the same time that we are existing and living in the presence.

For many whom think on various levels and travel in various dimensions while being able to return to this

World this may seem an easy path. For others who are just now awakening to their entire capabilities as a sentient intelligent being as a humanoid, the capabilities of the spirit inside the mind inside the brain

May have not been fully operational in the past due to the arrival on this planet and the veil of secrecy

Still being down.

It is time on earth that we all become awakened and aware of the shift and uplift of the entire human species on earth. After all, we are all made up of the same DNA and molecular process as humanoids which are said to have been first created by the omnipotent all that was in the beginning of the “WE” which we all now call the “I AM” in each of us. We are all now realizing that which those in our past ancestral heritage cultures and faiths closely resembling religions were trying to tell us. That we are all born of the omnipotent one or ones we call God and Goddess.

 For those who follow the ancient ancestors religions of the Adamic Origins in our history books and

Our sacred scriptures and codex’s, we can share that there were stories kept that were passed down

First orally and later written down from memory. This allowed for some stories to be lost throughout

Time over the ages on this planet.

 It is now a time on earth for those of us who are becoming fully awake and aware to share our memories of all that has been in the past and will be again.

 We are the Ascension Masters on earth who have at one time or another ascended into space to become more than we are today as memories encoded into lifetimes we call humanoid sentient intelligent beings.

 Some of us are sharing our findings of that which we call the Age of Enlightenment that began December 21, 2012 at 11:11 on this planet.

ET SPIRIT METAPHYSICIANS

WE are they who have kept up with the ontology and metaphysical information that was left to be shared by others who came before to enlighten us up to a certain level in time where we could begin to use their life maps of the paths they chose while walking this planet.

We are all important and that means that no one being is excluded from the critical mass mind.

We all play a part in sharing that which was created for us all.

We are all created to resemble various parts of the humanoid lifetimes and roles that have been played

out before on this planet and on others while those who are considered much older and wiser and having lived longer than we have consider the best teaching tools for us to be sharing as our learned skills.

 We are all humanoids on a working class planet in space.

We are all eternal as the old saying goes because we are all part of the omnipresence

That is and was and has always been. This is as close to the reading information that

We will get to know the source and force of all that is that has been described as the farthest

Beyond outside of our own point of origins that we use on this planet as our own body-mind-spirits.

We must get on with our future lives that we can describe as that of divine creation based on the

Beginning whether we want to claim the basic level of last century as the Big Bang Theory or the

Divine Creation Theory matters not any longer.

We have to get over ourselves and get on with living in the world of discovery and exploration of

What we have been provided.

We are all on a pleasant journey inside the eternal outsource and force of the beginning, the middle,

And the end of our own life stories.

 We are the way that each of us will be seen as recording that which we were sent here to record and

Make better while here in this place, in this space, on this planet we call earth.

We are all here on earth to perform a task of memory codes, and to become more than when we left our past lives with the use of our own essence as energy we call that of the original soul as the recalled

Source and force in all of us that for now we call life eternal.

 Life eternal is that which goes on forever in one form or another as the energy of the essence that

We all are cradled in as the part of the omnipotent omnivorous omnipresence.

We all take into the mind that which is the all be it plant, animal, or mineral matters not for we are now

Aware of the all in the everything.

 Therefore, we will now enter a realm of time on this planet when we shall discover how to process

The request for knowing the Theory of Everything.

 We at the basic carbon level of existence still realize we came into this being as humanoids as

Sentient intelligent beings whether we have been other than humanoid at this point in time matters not.

We must now share with those of us who made it this far that we are now here on this planet as humanoids and not as plants, animals, or minerals. We are here now to share our lives in companionship and to make in the Omniverse more than it is now.

 Now, that we have begun the process in this twenty-first century on earth to explain that there are more than our young species on this planet with those who command the various sizes of ships in space we call UFOS and under the oceans and seas we call USOS we shall now begin to share in the awakened awareness that all exist for a purpose and a reason to expand our own conscious awareness of our species so that we can recognize how to grow into the next level and phase of our existence.

We are now to share in the journey of life as we know it to exist while we learn to grown into that which

Is in space. We are to learn to recognize the vast journey that we are given to travel into the outer levels

Of our space given journeys and learn to leave this part of our lives on this planet.

It is time to journey into space and travel our galaxy among the galactic federation of galaxies.

We shall then learn to travel outside the galactic levels into the far reaching nebulas and out toward

The walls of the universe.

 The universe will then be explored as we explain that which in the past for those who came before

May have forgotten and that was that those from the heavens came and will come again.

 We will share the future with other humanoids in space that will teach us to travel out beyond which

We in the past explored with ancient ancestors.

 We will now learn to leave this planet and learn to travel out towards the various levels

That exists in this Universe, in other levels and dimensions in the Multiverse, Metaverse, Xenoverse,

Omniverse. Alphaverse and Omegaverse.

We share the Seven Levels (Heavens) of our Existence in the cosmos:

1.    Universe, 2. Multiverse, 3. Metaverse, 4. Xenoverse, 5. Omniverse, 6. Alphaverse, 7. Omegaverse.

This is now our quest to learn to accept space travel as part of our own spiritual journeys that are

Being shared while we are here in body-mind-spirit forms. We all are to share in birth-life-death experiences which we use to accomplish our own personal definition, growth, and expansion. We need to not only grow and maintain to survive but to share and have in order to maintain our survival in the entire macrocosm we call the Omniverse. The Supreme High Counsel oversees and does not interfere in individual free agency.

 We will then learn what it is like to experience the afterlife as our ancestors have and defy that which

We once only thought were myths and legends on this planet in Love and Light.

Our Universal government of the Galaxy Federation will be enforced.

Aliens Ascension Age Core Values – Tectonic Economics

Artistic Values – Tectonic Economics of the Ascension Age

ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION

Promotes Health & Prosperity For All!

Ascension

Intelligence Summit

For Healthy debates breed creative solutions.

 Andromeda Galaxy Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit -

Alliance WITH THE

Milky Way Galaxy Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit

Galactic Federation in Alliance with Andromeda Galaxy

Artistic Values of our Human Species.

 Artistic Values are also called aesthetic Values. These express pleasure with a person or object.

 Artistic Values address the importance of rich values of great importance.

 There may be beauty, good taste, symmetry, and the opposites.

 We all hold civilized judgments. As civilized people, we call fall subject to the “ALL” species as the “Critical Mass Mind”.

 In our infinite wisdom we all share around the world our collective involvement in the preservation of our art, literature and music. With these four creations we all express our own taste with or without proper training with complimentary skill concepts.

 Artistic values are often brought into play in forensic events even if only indirectly.

 For instance; building all cars for fossilized fuel consumption we were not anticipating the future intent

of depleting our fuel resources. Therefore, we are now dealing with alternate fuel sources such as electricity for our automobiles and trains along with other transportation equipment needs.

 We may experience betrayal and half-truths of what we now consider covert affairs in the ET UFO Community and we desire to have full disclosure of what all our governments around the world have chosen to keep covert and not disclosed to the public.

 We have decided that it is no longer in our best interest to keep the information regarding aliens and UFOS and USOS under the secret need to know only cooperation of all foreign and domestic affairs.

 When the UFOs of aliens are already in the minds and efforts of the general public this will affect the

Critical mass mind and what we now also call the global brain of the entire global community.

 If everyone is experiencing change and acceptance for the entire world as mysteries of the mystical spot

We may regard the future global brain as that which we may experience as serendipity.

 This means that many people begin using the same energy and getting the same ideas from that of the “Global Brain” or the critical mass mind which drives the entire force and power of the essence we call the Energy Grid in space and on the planet earth in the vibrations and sound waves we can all receive.

 This allows people to receive unlimited thoughts for change and for the imagination to work at its best

With the overall intent of making the world a better place to live for all.

 Free will is without equal on this planet and in space among all the humanoid sentient intelligent being

Species. The energy of freewill is without equal and is out chosen essence for the creation and of the

Creation of the “ALL” in the “I AM” of each of us.

One might say that our free will of life is what is inside each of our minds and the essential driving force

In all of us which is the power of our origin we call God/Goddess as the source of all creations or as that

Which is represented as the “ALL” and the “NATURE’S GOD”.

 Nature’s God also is involved with the environmental protection which is most important for the entire planet and species to survive. This is why our ancestors all were in tune and engrained with the story of all that came from space and when we all think of the creator we always think above and vertical as up in space.

Meaning just about all tribes of people on the earth will raise their finger and point to the sky when asked where we come from or where God is located. This is essential to the understanding of our fellow humankind on the planet we call earth. We are all living here and we call ourselves earthlings in space.

This word separates all of us from others who are of the same humanoid species just from other planets in other galaxies in space.

 Freedom of Speech is accepted and yet we are all taught to be humble and act as Goodwill Ambassadors for our own specific cultures and planets. This freedom of speech by all can be more important than the foreign national model of national security. We must all learn when to speak and when to listen and when it is time to join into a conversation about the participation in the future of humanity on all planets to be inhabited in the future.

 We are now earthlings who will be invited into a planetary conversation about the Galactic Federation and what we can expect to become in the near future over the next fifty years.

 We are to be personal and share our professional skills. We shall share our desires, motivations, talents and hope that our usual greed of our species does not come into play.

 We are in the First Year of Contact and our own President of the United State is to be tested.

This is done as is the same set of values and rules that are understood as informal. The world we know still has gun runners, terrorist’s cells, and other hoodlums that are to be told how to become future community citizens of space. We must teach them and instruct them in the proper way to share time on earth with other citizens of this planet earth.

 We know that the past has been about policing those who did not fit into society and may have done horrible deeds such as killing and murder of another being on the planet. Those who inflict harm on themselves or other beings must be taught how the mind works and what is expected on a working class planet.

This is why we always begin teaching all children from the early age of two years old by professionals who are engaged in the planetary instruction for the entire Galactic Federation.

 In the past all those in power have been accustomed to secrecy of the conversations held among those who are of the celestial realm or from space.

 We now assist in the investigations of all beings no matter what the demographics and logistics.

We can utilize the satellites from above for policing the entire planet. Sleeper cells in the world are

Always suspected. We have global concerns for planetary security.

 Scanning all public geographical locations in the future will be part of our casing places for anyone who

May pose a threat to harm themselves or others. We are going to share in the future policing of the planet in public places as well as in our local communities at the town, city, region, and state levels.

Then we shall address those in charge of each tectonic place on the plates that travel on the surface of the planet. We understand that there are already names given for the Tectonic Plates and we can abide by the use of the names already used and in place.

 Value judgments are highly elevated and relevant due to our curiosity. Intelligence relationships are delicate.

We share that when one agency on earth decides to participate in value judgments in the intelligence community it has already shared in the discussion and debate in their own internal operations before their own final vote of what is to be presented as a proposal is voted on in their own tribe and community.

 The final vote for the entire planet after close discussion and debate is given on each Tectonic Plate as this will be how the future of the planet will be divided up for equal votes based on supply and demand and the entire population count on the planet based on the demographics and logistics of the Tectonic Plates.

 When one agency of a Tectonic Plate Origin is chosen to represent the population on that particular plate we can then share other levels of living within the global commerce that is presently called world trade and commerce one earth. This is to specify a policy change for the Tectonic Plate due to the needs of the many with a representative we shall call the Director of Chief Agent who has been voted in as the spokesperson for that particular Tectonic Plate Division on Earth.

 To specify policy change in a species that deals with the past generations decisions may become enhanced in the future due to the needed upgrades for today’s modern time’s one earth. The new upgrades were scripted and talked about on earth in the past by who others on earth now realize were their own ancestors from space and brought here to the planet earth.

 Our success in forensics of our species was enhanced by understanding the nature of our needs by well qualified decision makers who are called the Supreme Allied Council. We have the Galactic Federation of Twelve elected officials who oversee the galaxies and all the space fleets who actually secure the territories.

 The Galactic Federation in turn answers to the Supreme Allied Council above for this universe and all others.

The Universe has then a Higher Council that answers to the level of the Fifth Dimension and so on and so forth on up the chain of command in the Omniverse.

 This is how it has always been done by our forefathers and ancestors in space who are called the humanoids as the sentient intelligent being species. We have empires in space.

When relevant values of conflict in nature occur we assess our priorities which have been determined in the past to save our lives and the role of value judgments gives rise to opulence and ultra-Nuevo of those who are elevated due to their longevity in space and in time.

We have those who are of the game of life affairs in the past and some of these would give rise to romance in our cultures of proliferation. We have come to question our feelings and all want to benefit from the survival of our species without causing undue concern and stress of the emotional nature of humanoids.

 We all have emotions and feelings as humanoids this is obvious. However we desire to become more diplomatic as ambassadors of goodwill among all our humanoids species and honor the cultural traditions of all planets.

We shall learn what we can all benefit from sharing that we all must have both male and female interaction of our species in order to survive.

Therefore we must vouch and concur to concede to our friends and relations and use social networking and friendly interactions with all humanoid species of both male and female of the species regardless of looks and desires. We must learn to upstream our permanency in the galaxies and in the universes.

We must intercede that the procreation of all humanoids as sentient intelligent beings is a permanent

Arrangement in space.

 From there we have decided to discuss among all planets humanoids hot to maintain the survival of all our humanoid clans as one species among all galaxies among all universes in space.

This term of policy originated from the ancient Greeks word POLIC, or CITY, and is the same route

Word in space. We use the word polis that leads to the English words police, politics, and metropolis in space. We use the same terms and these are now universal and Multiverse in terms in the Omniverse.

 Some may still object to the universal authority which is made of women or females as well as men and males. It is obvious that we must not disregard this as an old spirit of the ancients that were full of spite and jealousy. We have learned about these petty emotions and feel that those on earth can rise above these ancient ways and terms of all our ancestors.

 We must advance our specie and learn to operate as teams of both the male and female of all the galaxy tribes of our species of humanoids.

 We shall learn to congregate and communicate with honor and share our morals as ambassadors of goodwill for we will be seen by those who are not bionic but may resemble humanoids yet have no soul.

 Therefore in the future, the world will require that the local, states, regions include the entire

Federal laws and legislatures passing policies that are created in administrative branches of government

That deal with the breaches in society.

 Our Universal government of the Galaxy Federation will be enforced.

 The foreign transactions for the few and for the plenty in the all have the alien needs and alien alliances

Which will edify and affect the entire future of the Galaxy Federation in Space? Our foreign alien alliances

Include the earth and earthlings now as our guests in space due to the young beings who have been nurtured and created on the working class planet called earth.

 We have come to repair the change sin in everything in the future.

The future is always and forever and those who have been on earth were told that

We would come and share and repair the eternal forever which is a long time to remember and some who have been born in the last few thousand years have forgotten.

Extraterrestrial Intelligence Summit – Earth Tectonic Economics

 We have Current Tectonic Plates on Earth that will share in the future Geographic Power Status.

We all care about health and prosperity and job sustainability for a working class planet is crucial

To the survival of the humanoid sentient intelligent being species. Therefore, there is a new development in a rather old regime that is based upon our ancient civilizations past history with our new and modern technological welfare for the entire planet’s sustainability based on geographics and logistics.

 In the academic working world in education and the making of future doctors in philosophy or Ph.D.’s,

We will need more categories in the future in order to work in Tectonic Economics and Global Sustainability dealing in feeding the entire population of our 7 billion plus point.

It is said that we are working towards change to begin with the next presidential election scheduled

In the United States of America the main global power of the working class planet at the present time.

However, without the future being decided at the working class level with jobs and sustainability for all including health and welfare issues it is unlikely that the power can be sustained at the nation level.

Therefore the future will lie with more integrated leaders with the United Nations for the entire Global

Economy. The future is at stake and there are those in the entire global populace that realize the entire

Humanoid species relies on work.

 The working class planet is made up of the working class people as the majority. This must be taken into

Account when figuring out the future of humankind on earth. Sustainability issues include the following:

1.

First with “Water” as the main concern of humankind.

2.

Second is “Oxygen “or the other way around.

3.

Third is “Food “and the

4.

Fourth is “Clothing”.

5.

                                  Fifth is “Shelter”

    Animal Shelter

& Health for ALL including Animals, plants, Humanoids, Minerals

Although the Fifth and

6.

Sixth this is “Shelter”; include work, skills, and talents for jobs.

Spacecraft on Earth

7.

And Seventh is “Communication”.

8.

Eighth is “Prosperity”

Work & Monetary Gain – Prosperity

All the others Eighth and

9.

Ninth including “Transportation” to and from “Work” and for

“Communication” purposes

Is taken into account with the important “Education” to accomplish all of the

“NINE” working class requirements. While Tenth is Faith Based

10.

Tenth is “Faith”

The entire world’s population is based on this and then comes

11.

Eleventh is “Security”

of all of the “TEN REQUIRED COMMANDMENTS” in order to sustain

A working class planet.

12.

Twelfth is “Acknowledgement”

In Global Tectonic Economics,

Global Tectonic Economics takes in all twelve for the desires of the Higher Council and the Supreme Beings as the higher Beings above. That are said to be the best way to view the earth from space as extraterrestrial in origin share their “Bird’s Eye View from Above on how to govern the planet while in the Working Class Planet

Status.”

 As Above So Below…

ASCENSION CENTER ORGANIZATION

ET UFO Taken Up Story Assimilation Living Omnipresence in us All

 Where is the knowledge that the ET UFO Community supplies taking us? Why are we now being made aware of certain dates in time?

What was so important about the dates 11-11-11 and 12-21-12 on earth?

Will we all agree to share the same path as one humanoid sentient intelligent being species?

 What the future holds is now being created by each and every one of us.

No one is more or less important than the other for it takes all of us to plan out that which is called

The entire species of this planet. We all matter.

 Sharing the future and the past of one’s own life is like living two lives at the same time in the present.

We can all remember and we all have memories that make up who we are on the inside and who we project to others on the outside of our own body-mind-spirits.

 Now that we are entering the Ascension Age of Enlightenment we can all now be allowed to grasp the

Photographic images that are now in the Web on the Internet. We can all reach that which in the past was only obtainable by those chosen of earth to be trained as the Avatar Ascension Masters.

I believe that Most of our Avatar Masters of our past history on earth were all of the same creative

Divine omnipotence that is in us all.

 We all have chosen our own way to think and believe. We may all share that thinking is not believing and vice versa. It is up to each and every one of us to learn to be who we believe we have been in the past and who we shall become in the future all at the same time that we are existing and living in the presence.

For many whom think on various levels and travel in various dimensions while being able to return to this

World this may seem an easy path. For others who are just now awakening to their entire capabilities as a sentient intelligent being as a humanoid, the capabilities of the spirit inside the mind inside the brain

May have not been fully operational in the past due to the arrival on this planet and the veil of secrecy

Still being down.

It is time on earth that we all become awakened and aware of the shift and uplift of the entire human species on earth. After all, we are all made up of the same DNA and molecular process as humanoids which are said to have been first created by the omnipotent all that was in the beginning of the “WE” which we all now call the “I AM” in each of us. We are all now realizing that which those in our past ancestral heritage cultures and faiths closely resembling religions were trying to tell us. That we are all born of the omnipotent one or ones we call God and Goddess.

 For those who follow the ancient ancestors religions of the Adamic Origins in our history books and

Our sacred scriptures and codex’s, we can share that there were stories kept that were passed down

First orally and later written down from memory. This allowed for some stories to be lost throughout

Time over the ages on this planet.

 It is now a time on earth for those of us who are becoming fully awake and aware to share our memories of all that has been in the past and will be again.

 We are the Ascension Masters on earth who have at one time or another ascended into space to become more than we are today as memories encoded into lifetimes we call humanoid sentient intelligent beings.

 Some of us are sharing our findings of that which we call the Age of Enlightenment that began December 21, 2012 at 11:11 on this planet. We are they who have kept up with the ontology and metaphysical information that was left to be shared by others who came before to enlighten us up to a certain level in time where we could begin to use their life maps of the paths they chose while walking this planet.

We are all important and that means that no one being is excluded from the critical mass mind.

We all play a part in sharing that which was created for us all.

We are all created to resemble various parts of the humanoid lifetimes and roles that have been played

out before on this planet and on others while those who are considered much older and wiser and having lived longer than we have consider the best teaching tools for us to be sharing as our learned skills.

 We are all humanoids on a working class planet in space.

We are all eternal as the old saying goes because we are all part of the omnipresence

That is and was and has always been. This is as close to the reading information that

We will get to know the source and force of all that is that has been described as the farthest

Beyond outside of our own point of origins that we use on this planet as our own body-mind-spirits.

We must get on with our future lives that we can describe as that of divine creation based on the

Beginning whether we want to claim the basic level of last century as the Big Bang Theory or the

Divine Creation Theory matters not any longer.

We have to get over ourselves and get on with living in the world of discovery and exploration of

What we have been provided.

We are all on a pleasant journey inside the eternal outsource and force of the beginning, the middle,

And the end of our own life stories.

 We are the way that each of us will be seen as recording that which we were sent here to record and

Make better while here in this place, in this space, on this planet we call earth.

We are all here on earth to perform a task of memory codes, and to become more than when we left our past lives with the use of our own essence as energy we call that of the original soul as the recalled

Source and force in all of us that for now we call life eternal.

 Life eternal is that which goes on forever in one form or another as the energy of the essence that

We all are cradled in as the part of the omnipotent omnivorous omnipresence.

We all take into the mind that which is the all be it plant, animal, or mineral matters not for we are now

Aware of the all in the everything.

 Therefore, we will now enter a realm of time on this planet when we shall discover how to process

The request for knowing the Theory of Everything.

 We at the basic carbon level of existence still realize we came into this being as humanoids as

Sentient intelligent beings whether we have been other than humanoid at this point in time matters not.

We must now share with those of us who made it this far that we are now here on this planet as humanoids and not as plants, animals, or minerals. We are here now to share our lives in companionship and to make in the Omniverse more than it is now.

 Now, that we have begun the process in this twenty-first century on earth to explain that there are more than our young species on this planet with those who command the various sizes of ships in space we call UFOS and under the oceans and seas we call USOS we shall now begin to share in the awakened awareness that all exist for a purpose and a reason to expand our own conscious awareness of our species so that we can recognize how to grow into the next level and phase of our existence.

We are now to share in the journey of life as we know it to exist while we learn to grown into that which

Is in space. We are to learn to recognize the vast journey that we are given to travel into the outer levels

Of our space given journeys and learn to leave this part of our lives on this planet.

It is time to journey into space and travels our galaxy among the galactic federation of galaxies.

We shall then learn to travel outside the galactic levels into the far reaching nebulas and out toward

The walls of the universe.

 The universe will then be explored as we explain that which in the past for those who came before

May have forgotten and that was that those from the heavens came and will come again.

 We will share the future with other humanoids in space that will teach us to travel out beyond which

We in the past explored with ancient ancestors.

 We will now learn to leave this planet and learn to travel out towards the various levels

That exists in this universe, in other levels and dimensions in the Multiverse, Metaverse, Xenoverse,

Omniverse. Alphaverse and Omegaverse.

This is now our quest to learn to accept space travel as part of our own spiritual journeys that are

Being shared while we are here in the body-mind-spirit forms to share in the birth-life-death experiences which we use to accomplish that which we need to have in order to maintain our survival in the entire macrocosm we call the Omniverse.

 We will then learn what it is like to experience the afterlife as our ancestors have and defy that which

We once only thought were myths and legends on this planet in Love and Light.

Evidence of imminent Invasion by Alien ET UFOs

World Information Network (WIN) Psychic Souls Information and TJ Morris Psychic.NET. The Evidence of Alien ET Invasion is Everywhere.

WE ARE NOW INTEGRATING SOCIAL MEDIA WITH OUR SEARCHES ON OUR COMPUTERS IN THE WORLD WIDE WEB! – WE OF THE PSYCHIC AKASHIC FIELD HAVE BEEN DOING THIS FOR YEARS! IT IS TIME TO ALLOW EVERYONE IN THE WORLD TO CATCH UP USING THE WEB ON THE INTERNET.

 I am writing an article to celebrate the fourth anniversary with Dirk and Robert on UFO Digest.com. It will tell of one of my deepest secrets that are dear to my heart and soul. I will tell how one of my secrets confirms to me that we are never alone on this planet. Alien Civilizations exist and come and go as they please or are sent to share in the creative design of the entire humanoid species in the omniverse. Most know that I share the universe, multiverse, metaverse, xenoverse, and omniverse for the fifth dimension we share in this omniverse.

 Extragalactic means that we are located or originated beyond the Galaxy!

 I was once approached by an ET meaning an Extragalactic Being. The story I am about to share has taken me almost forty two years to share with the working world. Because of our new technology on this planet which we call the Internet Online and the WEB, I can now reach the world and allow my story to be joined with others who have had the same experience. Some have already come forth with their various experiences and because I have had so many based on who I am and how much I am allowed to know and experience on many levels it may appear that my lifetimes and my life experiences are just too impossible for anyone being to experience and know so much in one lifetime. So, please remember that the person telling this story has had many lifetimes and has been allowed to live and die and live and die again twice in this one lifetime in this one body. Also, that I have been allowed to know of my past eight lives prior to this one. All of the awakened awareness makes a difference in how much one’s own emotional and mental body can handle in one lifetime.  I shall share my story of all the alien ET contact to allow others to see just how we are blended in to the entire humanoid species in space for the first time on earth. I have ET SECRETS! TJ

 We can now begin our filtering and clustering in our organizations and at our EXPOS around the world.  Most all have accepted FACEBOOK and TWITTER AROUND THE WORLD. TJ MORRIS is also known as Theresa J Thurmond Morris – Event Organizer – Planner – Guide – Speaker – Hostess at Expos, Fairs and Conferences that cover Body Mind Spirit, Wellness, Holistic Health, Sustainability, Green Living, Organics, Conscious Living, Natural Healing, New Age, Metaphysics, Whole Foods, Psychics and Spirituality for over 21 years.

We who are considered Alien ET Hybrids are called Walk-Ins to some of the old Baby boomers (1946-1966). Then comes those we call the Lightworkers and the Younger or Second Wave of Lightworkers before we begin counting the Indigos. Depends on who one asks as to when one generation begins and the other ends. Just like we all have our ideas of what will happen in the Ascension Age beginning 12-21-12 that is simply called the Golden Age to all those of the old NEW AGE movement that want peace on this planet. The future will deal with the new spirits coming to earth now and sharing in the Divine Expo. This conference will develop a Global Think Tank. Twenty experts in Science, Technology, Space Engineering, Cosmology, and Spirituality coming together in a Whole Life Living Divine Consciousness Conference.

We are integrating some of our variations of the spiritual theme dealing with that which in the past was only thought of as scientific. We must now all become spiritual intellectuals over the next era in time.  This information to a member named ED can now be seen shared by all. I hope it is information that is helpful.

Hi ED:

Thank you for your kind emails and asking me to be your MENTOR in the years to come. Conferences I have assisted in the past all dealt with my personal interests. Now the Computer Social Media and Marketing on Computers has my interest since this is now my tool of choice for communication efforts… I realize you are only 21 years old and your father is a preacher.

I train many prophets, teachers, mystics in this world. This is part of the great awakening.

Hi my new friend. You may join me on Facebook under many of the pages I have. Choose one. You said you are most drawn to the ETSpirit.Org then that should be the one you join and become a writer for to train your spirit energy.

You asked me a few questions that I am sure others would like answered as well. The way I work I was taught to allow each person only three (3) Questions because there are so many beings on earth close to seven (7) billion which is the cut off time and why those who are in tune now with the astral vibrations and known astronomy and astrology are learning that the stars and planets are much older than what is taught in schools. Much of each harvest time for the masters is wiped out on the planet and new souls begin training again on this planet.

I am adding some information I have never come forth before and explained because it wasn’t time. I had to wait until the season was upon us. There is a time and season for all of us in our training and education on earth. I have just been allowed to begin the future with the Planet Information Network and the World Information Network which window was opened in 1990 in Hawaii.  We have portals in time. I worked with one window for forty earth years. Space Portals are real and some are beginning to appear around the world. Some will appear as the veil is thin like towns and mirages that were not previously in the same space on this planet. This will confuse the masses.

This is how in past civilizations there has come to be interested in magic and religions to many. The time to see things that could not be understood in real time because virtual time and space in the same place was not understood or comprehended. It is my understanding in all my nine (9) lives that this was part of why we have people like me come who are trained in various levels to use our minds in various ways to assist others. We are called Avatar Ascension Masters and to some they call us Time Lords because of our coming and going on this planet in various ways. Some of us use our skills we are taught in the other world. It is like Quantum Physics. We can use our minds to be in two places simultaneously. Some want to know the various levels and I have taught them in the last century. I shall begin to teach those who find their way to me.

My first memories are rather sketchy but the main ones I can remember are as real to me as today is. I was the only child so I had to be less than three years of age. I can remember playing with one in particular which has an impact on other spiritual souls therefor called   impacular which is a term for an intergalactic soul. We are all intergalactic and now we will begin to share ourselves that way on this planet. I am told to now create the Planet Information Network.com. I was given the Ascension Center.Org name in 1990 to allow for our growth on this planet with those who would impact change.

I cannot tell you all the words for in this world they are hard to sound out. It is like learning a new language without the proper vocal chords so most of those I know use something similar to ESP>. He was a boy child ET and he could come and go like a hologram. I believe I was trained by him with ESP for the first time before reaching 3. It could have been at 2 because I knew him for a long time and remember very certainly when my physical earth mother left him in the house. I have vivid memories of Mother not letting him go with us on trips in the car.  She would allow me to stand in the back seat of the car and I as of average height as a child. My guess is that the alien ET UFO ship which is what we call them on earth which stayed hidden in the white clouds above on sunny days or did not have to materialize due to stealth mode which I will have to explain much later because of patent implications for governments… ,

There are minerals used like Fe2O3 in Iron to ground or separate that which is from other galaxies and planets. Not all planets have the same minerals in space. Then we are taught about that which makes us more astral as in the air and can float. This entails ingredients such as those as a form of static electricity and magnetism and without a quantum engineering theorist able to think with both lobed of the brain at once it is very hard to share words. This deals with matter and anti-matter. This is why many of us were trained in space and on the planet. We will share the next 100 years learning how to become travelers in space and creating the future.

I have a way to train others and I am preparing the way now for the spiritual intellectuals who desire to share my spiritual journey on this planet while I can still walk the earth…

We were trained from the time we are born. It is told to us that our DNA is enhanced. I had to go to Long Island -Montauk Point in 1969-1972 in this lifetime and some trained as I did. I understand Andre Basiago was one of the boys that trained with me. He doesn’t know me in this lifetime but I know him. Some girls were kept separate. We were not supposed to be known and the man was not from earth and was very tall slim and had dark hair and had ESP and a German or Swiss accent. Then my husband’s father only did what he was told to do. I do not blame him since he as passed on to the other world now. I was always most agreeable as a child because it was fun! There was a lot of love for children like me on board the craft. I was taught how to talk with my mind to the little people who looked like short Japanese people to me with slanted eyes and had a light yellow cast. Some had grey and some had a light blue almost a green. I guess that was where the green alien terms in pop culture in marketing items became so popular. Well, I will tell you much later in your training about them. ..

For now you just know that I have much training and I can only teach those who ask for it and when it is said in the old days one’s belly is full. Those above who are over those of us as Avatar Ascension Masters in this program have seen many of our humanoid kind go insane because they cannot handle too much change in the design of their thoughts and materialized world. This is why through the last 9000 earth years we have only chosen people who have had their DNA enhanced over generations on this planet. We are all stardust and from space so we are all the same it is just that some of us are at longer life  cycle and levels and dimensions like we now use in computer games to teach.

I called this hologram Cleo. Not LEO. Mother was amazed at my friend because she could never see him but she soon learned how important he was and asked me why she could not see him. I told her he didn’t like grown-ups because every time she would come into my room he would disappear. Mother told many people later about my friend.

He told me it was because adults didn’t believe. That is where the fairy stories came from. Those who don’t believe cannot conceive! Makes sense when the mind thinks about it logically. Reasoning is a part of the grounding process. Our minds can become static with electricity and we become ungrounded. That is why we insist on learning the chakras on this planet and then we take them to the higher levels after astral travel for beginners. Who too much information in this one lesson for you. I apologize if I go too fast – your mind may not accept what I tell you if I share too much. We teach in small quantities because of what I told you about this reality and it has to do with virtual reality at the same time. IT is like energy that can be in two places at once in quantum physics. I can share more later on various topics dealing with the ancient mystery schools and now how we prepare the future with the combination of the old terms and the new terms. Also we will use the internet and the web.

Michio Kaku shares some of the basics for beginners. I listened to him a few nights on television and he has the right ideas and concepts I will just have to assist once they get past the string theory and the multiverse in time and space.

Anyway, back to my story and how I began or how I first remember them appearing to me. In various times when I was very ill they came to comfort and heal me .I learned a little each visit through the years myself. They visit in physical form as I became an adult. Then I saw some and I cannot admit or deny some worked with the government but I suspect so. I have my reasons and in an adult seminar with metaphysical believers who have done their homework I may teach this once again. It feels that it is time to begin once again – After 11-11-11 another portal in time opens up and I can begin choosing those I want to train that s say they want to be such as yourself. I have a whole life as proof that alien civilizations and people as humanoids in various sizes exist. Even in hues of skin. We are still all the same. Never let the color of one’s skin bother you. That is one of the basic lessons on earth. If people can’t get beyond something that is simple and they can see it will be very hard for them to learn with what is termed a prejudice mind.

In the later years as a child there was a movie with an actor named Jimmy Stewart who had a friend that was a tall white rabbit. It would make me very upset when mother would tell her friends about that movie and compare my alien ET friend to him. They weren’t the same at all. So, this was when I learned about holograms as a child and then when they could also touch objects and make them move. This was how they taught me about telekinesis.

Ed. You know how you asked if we could still write to each other and that you would need a MENTOR? Well, may I use your email to me to begin my ARTICLE for my WEBSITES and for UFO Digest?

The reason being, usually when people write me if they asked an important question to me and it isn’t about them, I put this question over in the category that other humanoids on the planet

I first began having memories. Then I went on a ride in the sky when I was a little girl and was brought back to an open field just down from my house. It was next to the neighbors. I was missing and my mother sent for my Aunt and Uncle and her mother to look for me. She had my little sister in the house who was a baby. I was about 3 and 1 /2 almost 4.

Then I went to White Sands, New Mexico when I was about 8 almost 9. I had just completed third grade and would be in the fourth.

The Spirit People as White Ghosts had appeared to me when I died the first time in the second grade when I had hepatitis A. I got it the last reporting period of the second grade. I had to have my homework brought to the hospital and to home and then the summer was out. Then they appeared to me in the alien ET UFOS.

The time when I visited with Indians and a healing of the spirit and as a walk-in in was done in a teepee tent with a shaman and smoke. This was performed when I went to White Sands, New Mexico with that same Aunt Vella and Uncle Rufus Henry with my grandmother Esther Sarah Richman Bolton.

I was also taken to White Sands up in an Alien ET UFO then but I don’t tell people because the stories always scared the daylights out of those who I chose to confide in. My grandmother told me to never tell anyone again about the people in the ET UFOS. My other Uncle actually worked in the Los Alamos Missile Range and another worked with the ET UFO underground. I went there the summer I was out of the third grade and would begin fourth grade at Ransom Elementary in West Monroe, La.

I had many visitations and sometimes my mother would not know where I was. They didn’t take long though. When we train in school in space time is not the same. There it goes by the same it does on earth but when we return we are only missing 13 minutes. They cannot put back those 13 minutes and I don’t know why. Not sure anyone of my kind in space know.

The life I lead in space as a grown humanoid is not the same one I lived as a child there. Now I am a full-fledged Commander and I have my own fleet. I can report in as a physical or so it seems to me there. It is like we are in the Hologram Fifth Dimension and to us here we can only take a part of us. We all have various parts, levels, dimensions, and personalities. It is apparent to those who I train as the Sages, Seers, Shaman, Mystics, and Oracles here on earth.

MESSAGE:

For those who have trained most all their lived in the Metaphysical Mystery Schools their minds can read various levels of a person’s aura as mine can. Many believe that we only have colors in our auras and in our chakras which they believe are only 7. There are actually 13 on earth.

There are 34 in all but in this Omniverse we only use 33 for space travel. We have also after we ascribe and learn about the 13 and 33 we can teach about the multiverses which we also share in the met averse, Xenoverse, and Omniverse. We start with our own simply microcosm inside our brains. This is inside or unit or vessel we call a body-mind-spirit. Then we learn we can utilize both our inner being and our outer being or what people call our intrinsic and extrinsic which seems as if we did not inherit it. This will seem like we are Extragalactic beings when actually that is what I am here to teach to those who are at the level to learn.

 A universal message to those who are receivers follows. There are the NINE (9). Each has a purpose and work together as a team. No one knows all nine who holds the key to the thirteen (13) and the (7) seals and levels.  There are also 13 crystal skulls as symbolic representation of that which will be taught on earth. There are also crop circles or signs and symbols used for communication purposes by the most intelligent ones to learn with computers their meaning. One will learn that in thousands of years they used symbols on cave drawings with animals to mark the stars and this was also a calendar to mark when the nine and the 13 return. We make it a gradual concept in design between worlds of reality and virtual which is what words are chosen in this time. Senders and Receivers and our Avatar Ascended Masters do both.

MANY LEARN TO CHANNEL AND SOME RECEIVE THE SAME MESSAGE FROM THEIR HIGHER CONSCIOUSNESS AND OTHERS FROM THEIR GUIDES AND SERAPH.

Some are serving the Masters of the Supreme Beings and some have callings as the Galactic Council. I have heard of many levels of Channels and Psychic Trance Mediums.

Many of us also use automatic writing too! I do and always have since I was a child. THERE ARE MANY BOOKS FOR BEGINNERS AND CLASSES IN GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONS ONLINE. I use to TEACH CLASSES IN HAWAII LAST CENTURY. I ALSO HAVE FRIENDS WHO ENJOY SHARING THEIR PAST LIVES> It depends on each individual what they desire to share about their soul journey here on this plane and planet. We all grow and the path seems long to some and short to others – time travel is now being taught and some engineers are learning to share the spiritual side of energy since everything is energy nowadays or so it is said and shared. When the words begin then many of us share the same messages around the world the higher we go on the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge. I have actually heard Trance Channels begin and seen others begin to mimic the message while their eyes are closed and one did not know what the other would channel and it was not rehearsed it was spontaneous like musicians playing jazz and knowing the same chords. The more one knows and goes up the ladder of spiritual intelligence the more one realizes they do not know about the soul. It should be the quest of each and every individual to get to know their own soul’s journey. This is a way for us to learn of each other as we pass like ships in the night. We can also choose to share the long voyage in groups on this endless see of time we call eternity! TJ

You can see how human ability is offset by the desire for happiness, peace and security, how people’s vision and ability to know are hampered by influences even within their own cultures. How much greater these influences will be within a Greater Community environment.

This is the message that must be said, the truth that must be spoken, and the truth that is vital and cannot wait. It is so necessary for people now to learn a greater Knowledge, a greater Wisdom and a greater Spirituality so that they may find their true abilities and be able to use them effectively.

FREEDOM

Your freedom is at stake.

The future of your world is at stake.

It is because of this that we have been sent here to speak for the Allies of Humanity.

KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM

There are those in the universe who are keeping Knowledge and Wisdom alive and who practice a Greater Community Spirituality.

They do not travel all about, casting influence over different worlds.

They do not take people against their will.

They do not steal your animals and your plants.

They do not cast influence over your governments.

They do not seek to breed with humanity in order to create a new leadership here.

Your allies do not seek to interfere in human affairs.

They do not seek to manipulate human destiny.

WATCHERS OF THE UNSEEN

They watch from afar and they send emissaries such as ourselves, at great risk to us, to give counsel and encouragement and to clarify things when that becomes necessary.

There are ALLIES in space who deliver messages to individuals to place them in words to share with the sentient intelligent beings on earth. This some that are being sent to various beings around the world.

“We, therefore, come in peace with a vital message.”

INTERBREEDING

Now we must speak of the fourth area in which your visitors seek to establish themselves, and that is through interbreeding.

They cannot live in your environment.

They need your physical stamina.

They need your natural affinity with the world.

They need your reproductive abilities.

They also want to bond with you because they understand that this creates allegiance.

This, in a way, establishes their presence here because the offspring of such a program will have blood relations in the world and yet will have allegiance to the visitors.

The visitors are not here to take your reproductive abilities away from you.

They are here to establish themselves.

They want humanity to believe in them and to serve them.

They want humanity to work for them.

They will promise anything, offer anything and do anything to achieve this goal.

Yet though their persuasion is great, their numbers are small.

Their influence is growing.

Their program of interbreeding, which has been underway for several generations, will eventually be effective.

There will be human beings of greater intelligence but who do not represent the human family.

All things are possible and have occurred countless times in the Greater Community.

HISTORY

You have only to look at your own history to see the impact of cultures and races upon one another and to see how dominating and how influential these interactions can be.

Thus, we bring with us important news, serious news. But you must take heart, for this is not a time for ambivalence.

This is not a time to seek escape.

This is not a time to concern yourself with your own happiness.

This is a time to contribute to the world, to strengthen the human family and to call forth those natural abilities that exist in people—the ability to see, to know and to act in harmony with one another.

These abilities can offset the influence that is being cast upon humanity at this time, but these abilities must grow and be shared. It is of the utmost importance.

This is our counsel. It comes with good intentions. Be glad that you have allies in the Galactic greater Community, for allies we were always present in space will need.

We are entering a greater universe, filled with forces and influences that you have not yet learned how to counteract. You are entering a greater panorama of life. And we must prepare for this.

WORDS

Words are but part of the preparation.

A preparation is being sent into the world now. It does not come from us.

It comes from the Creator of all life.

It comes at just the right time.

Time is for humanity to become strong and wise separately as a unit and together as a whole community…

ABILITY: You have the ability to do this.

NEEDS: Events and circumstances of your life create a great need for this.

I like to share words on my path of love and light while I am here. TJ

27 ALIEN ET FACTS KNOWN TO EXIST ON EARTH BY TJ

1. Aliens visit planet earth.

2. There are various humanoid types of aliens.

3. There are both male and female classed aliens

4. There are various humanoid type aliens working together

5. Aliens visit earth to collect specimens and explore

6. Humans have been contacted on earth by aliens

7. Aliens consider humanoids of earth an intelligent being species.

8. Aliens consider humans a very young civilization of our kind.

9. Aliens come and go at will.

10. Aliens choose whom they contact.

11. Some aliens do abduct humans although they bring them back.

12. Aliens are interested in the Alien Hybrids.

13. Aliens have enhanced some humans DNA

14. Aliens have joined a benevolent alliance in space

15. Aliens of Andromeda Galaxy will be joining Milky Way Galaxy.

16. Awareness of Aliens Program in Progress.

17. December 21, 2012 accepted as Alien Awareness Project Date Assignment

18. Aliens can look like humans.

19. Aliens who are far more advanced than humans of earth are interested in our species.

20. Some aliens who are in the benevolent alliance are aware of malevolent violent aliens.

21. We are to become aware of the alien benevolent alliance and the malevolent violent aliens.

22. We will become aware of other alien civilizations in space from other galaxies.

23. We will be learning about the alien spacecraft captured around the world.

24. We will be sharing more knowledge of various human stories of alien encounters.

25. We will discuss the “Contactees” encounters versus “Abductees” encounters.

26. Assuming No attack or invasion, are good;

27. Assuming Advanced Technology equals Advanced Ethics and Spirituality;

What is a Superior Force ;(? Internal & External)

Intrinsic Realities ~ Intrinsic Knowledge by Ginger Parrish Bowers is a book coming soon.

Visit us on TheresaJMorris.org a Social Network of volunteer Social Entrepreneurs of Creativity and Generosity sharing their work, words, life, and experiences while introducing others to their creative works as BOOKS in art, culture, education, science, technology, folklife, and paranormal experiences. See also theresajmorris.com, TJMorrisET.com, TJMorrisACO.com. We may change website names.

We who are considered Alien ET Hybrids are called Walk-Ins to some of the old Baby boomers (1946-1966). Then comes those we call the Lightworkers and the Younger or Second Wave of Lightworkers before we begin counting the Indigos. There are also the Crystals and the Rainbow Children. Depends on who one asks as to when one generation begins and the other ends. Just like we all have our ideas of what will happen in the Ascension Age beginning 12-21-12 that is simply called the Golden Age to all those of the old NEW AGE movement that want peace on this planet.

If I am going to be asked to keep track and make the decisions like Buffy the Vampire Slayer or on Star Trek for all of us who are” wanna- be” science fiction writers then I am going to use what I believe to be my own way of thinking about the dividing lines. So, all those who have been keeping up aliens, and ufo reports in the old way of doing things in the old age were cut off officially as of 11-11-11. Things changed and so did we.

 Someone had to say it, do it, and make it happen! So, I just did! We will keep up with the various reporting agencies and directories online on the web and Internet. We will share the World Information Network (WIN) Alliance in the ET UFO Community. We will now form the Planet Information Network (PIN). We will know who will join us as allies and who will link in and also be added to our friend’s network. For now we only share connections and find each other using Facebook which is not owned by us but used by us. We see no reason to reinvent the wheel as in When in Rome.

Whether MUFON, CUFOS, and all other reporting agencies want to abide by my date remains to be seen but those who are into the Ascension will probably agree with me. We see the spiritual enlightenment of the implications that things can’t go on forever the way they have been. Therefore, forever, has some rules and we are setting them ourselves.

There are interested paranormalists that we call UFO Sky watchers who are intent on sharing their own views, ideas, videos, and photos with others on the Internet. Some are so into the movement they create fake ones and we must forgive these who are overzealous to say the least.

But, we now have to be aware that there are people waking up all over the world and they truly want to be heard. IT is time to formulate, organize, and congregate with our similar interests much like Facebook is doing now for all of us. Most of us don’t need MUFON any longer when we can all meet on FACEBOOK and on WEBCAMS. Some will want to share their experiences and at the end of this article is one of those people who just want to know and belong with others who would share their sightings and belief in the ET UFO Boomerang shapes that fly in “V” formation. I am one who believes because I know and there is the fine difference in those who know and those who believe.   More and more people are waking up and sharing their stories of late. It is a sign of the times. I have many friends who are authors and speakers and they are jumping on the band wagon to speak at expos and seminars about what people want to hear and that is how to relate to the new paradigm which is a paradox. Most all are relating to the time that is date stamped on history as 12-21-12. We are now collecting all our information which had a speed up date on 11-11-11.

TIME IS ACCELERATING FOR THE ASCENSION AGE .

We in the REAL ET UFO COMMUNITY would appreciate all your lives being in order with all of your past life hurts forgiven. Whatever they are we all forgive you. Now we would like all interested parties in the REAL ET UFO COMMUNITY to step out of the crowd and be counted. We want to know you and your listed website or blog or websites and blogs if you have many like me. There are many being recruited as those we call Lightworkers and Truthseekers. There are many in the old paradigm movement of the last century still holding onto their old reports. Please get them out, dust them off, scan them and make them into DIGITAL MEDIA so the rest of us can read them and get them into the PROPER ARCHIVES for global future retrieval of those who will be left behind on earth. Many of you may already know of many of the “BABYBOOMER’s PARENTS” who are checking out. It is becoming harder and harder on many of us to stay in our body who are what the younger generation is calling the “OLD LIGHTWORKERS” – YES I SEE IT ALL THE TIME on WEBSITES. So if you are my age – I was a Babyboomer born December 26, 1951 and I am also an ALIEN ET HYBRID WALKIN or SPIRIT inside a body-mind-spirit having a birth-life-death experience with the rest of all humanoids on earth. In other words I believe we are all ET aliens and we are all Time-Travelers! I have even seen some major journalists quoting what I say and putting it in their own words and rewriting what I saw about the future and the times to come – so go ahead and share the times and use my name in vain if you need too but get the job done.

We need all those who feel like they had a job to do to come forth and assist in all the UFO REPORTS in all the various PLACES like CUFOS, MUFON, SETI, CSETI, ECETI, and all the VARIOUS WEBSITES like UFO Digest.com , UFOMAG.com, Open Minds, and so on and so forth.

There are many to choose from depending on your taste and desires to seek truth in work and words prepared as information by TJ Morris ET & Friends.

I did not keep all the people records of stories that people sent me because I had no need.

 I was already on board and the plans were known to me in various levels and stages. I will do what I can to assist in the future alliance for the World Information Network (WIN) and will be linking and listing more and more websites that want to be added into the alliance.

Some are thinking that the Galactic Federation are the EVIL ONES and sharing Don’t GET ON THE SHIPS!

While others are saying they want to go home! So, go figure!

Each being will have to decide for themselves whether they want to stay on this planet as agreed –

I was once offered a chance to leave and chose to stay to assist during this time.

Some believe there are the EVIL ONES on this planet in the underground caves and caverns up to no good and come and go as they please with a hidden agenda.

We have not been invaded yet and I only know of a few pilots that have disappeared and we cannot blame their lost persons report on UFOS because the government and military forces say that is Impossible.

We are now approaching the time of the harvest and our angels and guides if you will are going to begin sorting the wheat from the chaff and/or shaft just like our ancestors have predicted in the past.

(1.Chaff to separate- grain husks from the seed, as by threshing. 2. Chaff- Releasing strips of metal foil into the air to avoid radar. 3. To make fun of as in good nature teasing.)

Those who have great thoughts and believe in their own spirit having a birth-life-death experience here to return to their souls elsewhere as in dual citizenship in space will be taught to be aware and awake.

Those who choose to remain on earth with those who will stay here and take care of the planet either dead or alive in humanoid body form will stay and be left behind.

Some of us haven’t made up our minds.

The fact is that people expect the “SHIFT TO THE UPLIFT” of spirit as the final and last days to occur on 12-21-12 or around that time.

Even the “GREAT AWAKENING” of the spirit that the “NEW AGE” movement began has now shifted to the PREACHERS of the old TENT REVIVALS of the old days into the larger TV evangelism collectors of money.

The Praise and Worship groups who have basically supported Gospel Music are all tuning into a shorter sermon and more singing and open praise with their voices and instead of using E-mail they still believe in KNEE-mail.

From now on it’s all over but the deciding whether one believes they have a spirit or not and will they believe in the higher source and soul purpose for one’s own mission here on earth or will they simply become what we in the ET UFO Community call CANNON FODDER?

I would like to leave on a positive note as a known commander of the Andromeda Galaxy and there are plenty of us ET types who know we are all about joining forces and deciding which uniform we will wear.

Remember all that Gene Roddenberry did for us on this planet as STAR TREK and all that we gained in technology and he was actually one of us who we called the original NINE (9).

We are chosen as what in other realms are called Time-Travelers and we are also known in earth terms as Avatar Ascended Masters having already died 8 times in this life of memories.

I am one of the returns of the NINE.

 Just my name TJ can be shared as a reincarnation of the energy that is known in past lives all the way back to MU and Atlantis.

Well enough reminiscing.

It’s time to go and I really do want everyone to know we are all the same in the body-mind-spirit lifetimes here and some will get to see the rest of the universe, multiverse, metaverse, xenoverse, and omniverse.

Some will simply stay behind and learn Quantum Physics for the new life on earth!

TYPICAL EMAILS

Typical emails I get from PEOPLE who are awakening and wondering, “WHAT DO I DO NOW WITH THIS KNOWLEDGE?” – TURN IN YOUR REPORTS! TJ?

Hi, Theresa If you would like to put my story on your websites, Go-ahead use it if you like… I think Boomerang UFO Info would be great as it may bring out more people that have seen these things… I would love to know if other people have seen anything like what we saw that night. I really cannot be sure of the exact date; I have thought about it a lot and have it narrowed down to the summer of 1962, July or Aug. My friend and I were both 13 years old at the time… I will rewrite the story omitting our last names, correcting a typo as well, and referring to the year as the summer of 1962. Robert.

Hi Theresa:

My name is Robert and I now reside in British Columbia, Canada. I googled Boomerang type UFO s and came up with your info… Back when I was a 13 year old kid I lived in Estevan ,Sask. Canada and in the summer I quite often would sleep out on the lawn in the back yard ,sometimes with my friend, and star gaze until I finally went to sleep. Back in the summer of 1962 my friend Dennis and I were stargazing on a moonless night in Aug. when we saw these objects going zipping across the sky. We really could not believe what we just saw. I would describe them as five white boomerangs flying in a V formation… They appeared to be small and were very fast and silent… They first crossed the sky in a very straight line from East to West in approx. 1 second from horizon to horizon.  We were in disbelief as to what we just saw. Then approx. 30 seconds later they appeared again flying the exact same course from East to West again. It would have been approx. three or 4 minutes later, they crossed the sky from North to South again in straight line taking approx. 1 second from horizon to horizon, then approx. 30 seconds later they flew exactly the same course from North to South.  We thought at the time that they must have flown right around the earth from E to W twice then flew around the earth from N to S twice. I listened to the news on the radio the next day as I thought thousands of people would have seen what we saw that night but I guess us the only ones, as there was no mention of it on the news… After I found your info on the web, I found it interesting that UFO s can be the shape of boomerangs and I was wondering if you have ever heard of boomerang type UFO s flying in a V formation.  We saw them 4 times all together that night. I simply cannot believe we were the only ones that saw these things. Estevan Sask. is near the center of North America… I am not sure if that had anything to do with the flight path or not… My friend Dennis moved away a year later and I have not seen him since but I am sure if you talked to him, he would tell exactly the same story. We always referred to them as the “5 white boomerangs”. Cheers! Robert

Hello Robert:

Thank you for finding me under Boomerang UFOS. Yes, I have heard of V formation. IT is a typical flight pattern. Thank you for your story. Can you give me a date? Can I use your story on my websites/ See the LIST BELOW? I can place it in Social Paranormal.com, or ETspirit.org, or make a page for BOOMERANG UFO INFO.  ? ET UFOS Buzzed the Whitehouse – To Show The Reality of Existence. The whole world was watching and learning with major media writing about it in the newspapers. The world has since been brainwashed to forget by the makers of major media corporations who were in control such as the Rockefellers. Private Commerce became more powerful than government and the government was then controlled by big businesses thought to be too big to fail. The large black operations were financed from that point on due to the secrecy of the ET UFO considerations on earth and in space.

I have some UFO LINKS I CAN ADD TOO! Thanks for the NEWS. I liked your story. Send me the exact dates if you can and email me back if it is okay for the whole world to see you email to me if they want to view your story?  THE AIR FORCE CALLS THIS A “V” FORMATION WHILE THE U.S. ARMY CALLS IT A WEDGE FORMATION BECAUSE THEY ARE PROTECTING EACH OTHER IN THAT FORMATION.  IT’S HARDER TO ATTACK AND SNEAK UP BEHIND THEM. YOU ARE COVERING a 360 DEGREES ALL THE WAY AROUND it is said to be the best pattern for travel. It is called a TRAVEL formation to cover distance. I will let you know how George Filer and MUFON prefer reports to be recorded. I am just now deciding to assist with keeping up with others since I have not in the past been keeping up with all the stories.  It is my understanding that most prefer to record their stories somewhere to be archived. The only place I have listed my own in the past was with MUFON. That stands for Mutual UFO Network. I can record your story as received with your EMAIL as a Digital EMAIL address and NAME.  If anyone desires to contact you in the world in the future they can use this address as long as it is good. It is probably best if we begin to document with some type of government identification so we can trace you down for more information. I am only trained in the legal and government type of investigation and this Internet documentation is something I can do in cyberspace on the Internet and simply have my WEBSITES kept and copied and archived which is done by certain companies already. I will keep this as the First One I am going to record in the new WORLD INFORMATION NETWORK (WIN) for PROOF.

 I personally use the ET SPIRIT.ORG for my contact with the ENERGY of those who are INVOLVED with similar interests that I have in the ET UFO COMMUNITY. Apparently there are many people who desire to contact me telling me their stories but in the past they just wanted to share them with me and did not want to go public. Maybe now times have changed for many as we get closer to the ASCENSION AGE. I also use the Ascension Center.ORG with many who have worked with me for years actually since the first Houston Gathering. 1984-85. I just did not recognize the world with the world until the log materialized in Hawaii, USA for us.

I will record this confirmation of ET UFO BOOMERANGS flying in the “V” pattern formation.  (If some words are hard to define or spell out or sound out. It is because we search for the common meaning on earth. We take the vibrations and sound them out into symbols and then the words of the language of the interpreter. Love and Light – Namaste – TJ

Good evening Tj!

I hope you have had a great day so far it is storming very heavily in South Carolina! These monsoons are so unpredictable. I had a rest period during camp today and when I woke up it was exactly 12:27pm. I enjoyed that moment mightily. I am also in charge of all of the sports at camp and I enjoy every moment.

As far as the websites, I really digested etspirit.org and struck interest in that page. I am a young writer; nevertheless, I am willing to learn more and more each day.

I ponder more than anything in my day to day activities. The questions I come across each day never cease to amaze me. I am more than certain I have had contact with the extraterrestrial. The contact is in dream form and I make a huge attempt to recollect them fully.

How did your contact come about and what was it like? My father is a pastor and I have been in a very religious background for a long time. My beliefs have been very abroad and I have no limit to the possibilities of the spirit.

 Love and Light TJ -TJ MORRIS» as the mantra and saying for all who live by the spirit.  This goes with Namaste as we each bow to each other for the spirit in each of us. It is an ancient mystery school custom. Also sharing our touch with the minds as greeting by touching our third eyes together for about a three second interval as a shared ancient custom. We are Lightworkers and Truthseekers and believe in divine creation of the spirit in us all in the entire Omniverse of the original creators be they called God and Goddess as the masculine and feminine. It was used thousands of earth years ago and the Egyptians understood the feminine and the cosmos as the mother and the womb of creation in the Omniverse. The future will delve more into the ancient mystical beliefs that were feminine and these became dominant because of some who desired to rule over being found to be light of heart as was first shared with all on this planet. We will begin recognizing those who have been called to share in the Ascension Age and with those of similar interests in the future in the Planet Information Network.COM. We will be working with those in the marketing and media with computer webmasters because of the need to further the awareness in the web. We shall create our own new expos around the world as the PIN EXPOS for Planet Information Network – where we can all share our wisdom. People want to know the truth and how to access it in the former paradigm which was the past while the future may seem a paradox.

Tectonic Economics will have Seven Major Upper Echelons for the Directors of the Chief Agents

Who will share in the Global Summit of Tectonic Economics with the entire list of plates including the

Secondary and Tertiary plates for future reference and administration for Global Trade and Commerce.

UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL

At present China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States are sometimes referred to as great powers, although there is no unanimous agreement among authorities as to the current status of these powers or what precisely defines a “great” power.

 These five nations are the only states to have permanent seats on the UN Security Council.

They are also the recognized “Nuclear Weapons States” under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

Sources have at times referred to China, France, and the UK as “middle powers”.

In addition, despite the lack of a permanent seat at the UN Security Council, Germany and Japan are

Occasionally considered to be great powers, although Germany and Japan are referred to by others as

Middle powers or economic great powers.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, its UN Security Council permanent seat was transferred to

The Russian Federation in 1991, as its successor state. The newly-formed Russian Federation emerged on

The level of a great power, leaving the United States as the only remaining global superpower (although some support a multipolar world view).

With continuing European integration, the European Union is increasingly being seen as a great power in its own right, most notably in areas where it has exclusive competence (i.e. economic affairs), and with

Representation at the WTO and at G8 and G-20 summits.

The European Union, however, is not a sovereign state and has limited scope in the areas of foreign affairs and defense policy, which remain with the union’s member states, which include great powers France, Germany and the United Kingdom.

 TECTONIC PLATES – Dealing in the Future Tectonic Economics of Earth

 JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF (7) – Seven Main Tectonic Plates Representatives China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, and

The United States

(5) -POWERS

1.    Great powers (with Security Council vetoes): China, France, Russia, United Kingdom and United States.

2.    Great powers without Security Council vetoes: Germany and Japan.

(2) Germany and Japan

EXECUTIVE ADMINISTRATORS (8) – The Second Eight in Command are the Administrators who answer directly

To the Seven (7) Major Directors as the Joint Chiefs in Command of the Global Trade and Commerce.

 TECTONIC PLATES ECONOMIC CONGRESS (60)

Tectonic plates are pieces of the Earth’s crust and uppermost

Mantle together referred to as the lithosphere.

 The plates are around 100 km (60 miles) thick and consist of two principal types of material: oceanic crust

(Also called sima from silicon and magnesium) and continental crust (sial from silicon and aluminum).

 The composition of the two types of crust differs markedly, with basaltic rocks (“mafic”) dominating

Oceanic crust, while continental crust consists principally of lower density granitic rocks (“felsic”).

 Primary plates

These seven plates comprise the bulk of the seven continents and the Pacific Ocean.

1.    African Plate

2.    Antarctic Plate

3.    Eurasian Plate

4.    Indo-Australian Plate

5.    North American Plate

6.    Pacific Plate

7.    South American Plate

Secondary plates

These smaller plates are generally shown on major plate maps, but with the exception of the Arabian

And Indian plates do not comprise significant land area.

Arabian Plate

Caribbean Plate

Cocos Plate

Indian Plate

Juan de Fuca Plate

Nazca Plate

Philippine Sea Plate

Scotia Plate

Tertiary plates

Tertiary plates are grouped with the major plate that they would otherwise be shown as part of on a

Major Plate Map. Mostly these are tiny micro plates.

 An exception is in the case of the Nubian-Somalian and Australian-Capricorn-Indian plates these

Are major plates that are drifting apart?

Some models identify more minor plates within current orogens like the Apulian, Explorer, Gorda, and

Philippine Mobile Belt plates.

The remainders of the tertiary plates are the dwindling remains of much larger ancient plates.

There may or may not be scientific consensus as to whether a tertiary plate is a separate plate yet,

Is still a separate plate, or should be considered a separate plate, thus new research could

Change this list below:

African Plate

Madagascar Plate

Nubian Plate

Seychelles Plate

Somali Plate

Antarctic Plate

Kerguelen microcontinent

Shetland Plate

South Sandwich Plate

Caribbean Plate

Panama Plate

Gonâve Microplate

Cocos Plate

Rivera Plate

Eurasian Plate

Adriatic or Apulian Plate

Aegean Sea Plate (or Hellenic Plate)

Amurian Plate

Anatolian Plate

Banda Sea Plate

Burma Plate

Iberian Plate

Iranian Plate

Molucca Sea Plate

Halmahera Plate

Sangihe Plate

Okinawa Plate

Pelso Plate

Sunda Plate

Timor Plate

Tisza Plate

Yangtze Plate

Indo-Australian Plate

Australian Plate

Capricorn Plate

Futuna Plate

Indian Plate

Kermadec Plate

Maoke Plate

Niuafo’ou Plate

Sri Lanka Plate

Tonga Plate

Woodlark Plate

Juan de Fuca Plate

Explorer Plate

Gorda Plate

North American Plate

Greenland Plate

Okhotsk Plate

Pacific Plate

Balmoral Reef Plate

Bird’s Head Plate

Caroline Plate

Conway Reef Plate

Easter Plate

Galapagos Plate

Juan Fernandez Plate

Kula Plate

Manus Plate

New Hebrides Plate

North Bismarck Plate

North Galapagos MicroPlate

Solomon Sea Plate

South Bismarck Plate

Philippine Sea Plate

Mariana Plate

Philippine Microplate

South American Plate

Altiplano Plate

Falklands Microplate

North Andes Plate

 

ANCIENT HISTORY OF PLATES

In the history of Earth many tectonic plates have come into existence and have over the intervening years

either accreted onto other plates to form larger plates, rifted into smaller plates, or have been crushed by or subducted under other plates (or have done all three).

Ancient supercontinents

A supercontinent is a landmass consisting of multiple continental cores. The following list includes

The supercontinents known or speculated to have existed in the Earth’s past:

Columbia

Euramerica

Gondwana

Kenorland

Laurasia

Nena

Pangaea

Pannotia

Proto-Gondwana

Proto-Laurasia

Rodinia

Ur

Vaalbara

Legal aspects of computing

Part of a series on

Legal aspects of computing

File sharing

Legal aspects of hyperlinking and framing

Spamming

The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (February 2012)

Legal aspects of computing are related to the overlapping areas of law and computing.

The first one, historically, was information technology law (or IT law). (“IT law” should not be confused with the IT aspects of law itself, although there are overlapping issues.) IT law consists of the law (statutes, regulations, and caselaw) which governs the digital dissemination of both (digitalized) information and software itself (see history of free and open-source software) and legal aspects of information technology more broadly. IT law covers mainly the digital information (including information security and electronic commerce) aspects and it has been described as “paper laws” for a “paperless environment”.

Cyberlaw or Internet law is a term that encapsulates the legal issues related to use of the Internet. It is less a distinct field of law than intellectual property or contract law, as it is a domain covering many areas of law and regulation. Some leading topics include internet access and usage, privacy, freedom of expression, and jurisdiction.

“Computer law” is a third term which tends to relate to issues including both Internet law and the patent and copyright aspects of computer technology and software.

Areas of law

See also: Software law

There is intellectual property in general, including copyright, rules on fair use, and special rules on copy protection for digital media, and circumvention of such schemes. The area of software patents is controversial and still evolving in Europe and elsewhere.

The related topics of software licenses, end user license agreements, free software licenses and open-source licenses can involve discussion of product liability, professional liability of individual developers, warranties, contract law, trade secrets and intellectual property.

In various countries, areas of the computing and communication industries are regulated – often strictly – by government bodies.

There are rules on the uses to which computers and computer networks may be put; in particular there are rules on unauthorized access, data privacy and spamming. There are also limits on the use of encryption and of equipment which may be used to defeat copy protection schemes. The export of Hardware and Software between certain states is also controlled.

There are laws governing trade on the Internet, taxation, consumer protection, and advertising.

There are laws on censorship versus freedom of expression, rules on public access to government information, and individual access to information held on them by private bodies. There are laws on what data must be retained for law enforcement, and what may not be gathered or retained, for privacy reasons.

In certain circumstances and jurisdictions, computer communications may be used in evidence, and to establish contracts. New methods of tapping and surveillance made possible by computers have wildly differing rules on how they may be used by law enforcement bodies and as evidence in court.

Computerized voting technology, from polling machines to internet and mobile-phone voting, raise a host of legal issues.

Some states limit access to the Internet, by law as well as by technical means.

Jurisdiction

Issues of jurisdiction and sovereignty have quickly come to the fore in the era of the Internet.

Jurisdiction is an aspect of state sovereignty and it refers to judicial, legislative and administrative competence. Although jurisdiction is an aspect of sovereignty, it is not coextensive with it. The laws of a nation may have extraterritorial impact extending the jurisdiction beyond the sovereign and territorial limits of that nation. This is particularly problematic as the medium of the Internet does not explicitly recognize sovereignty and territorial limitations. There is no uniform, international jurisdictional law of universal application, and such questions are generally a matter of conflict of laws, particularly private international law. An example would be where the contents of a web site are legal in one country and illegal in another. In the absence of a uniform jurisdictional code, legal practitioners are generally left with a conflict of law issue.

Another major problem of Cyberlaw lies in whether to treat the Internet as if it were physical space (and thus subject to a given jurisdiction’s laws) or to act as if the Internet is a world unto itself (and therefore free of such restraints). Those who favor the latter view often feel that government should leave the Internet community to self-regulate. John Perry Barlow, for example, has addressed the governments of the world and stated, “Where there are real conflicts, where there are wrongs, we will identify them and address them by our means. We are forming our own Social Contract. This governance will arise according to the conditions of our world, not yours. Our world is different”.

 A more balanced alternative is the Declaration of Cybersecession: “Human beings possess a mind, which they are absolutely free to inhabit with no legal constraints. Human civilization is developing its own (collective) mind. All we want is to be free to inhabit it with no legal constraints. Since you make sure we cannot harm you, you have no ethical right to intrude our lives. So stop intruding!”

Other scholars argue for more of a compromise between the two notions, such as Lawrence Lessig’s argument that “The problem for law is to work out how the norms of the two communities are to apply given that the subject to whom they apply may be in both places at once” (Lessig, Code 190).

With the internationalism of the Internet, jurisdiction is a much more tricky area than before, and courts in different countries have taken various views on whether they have jurisdiction over items published on the Internet, or business agreements entered into over the Internet. This can cover areas from contract law, trading standards and tax, through rules on unauthorized access, data privacy and spamming to more political areas such as freedom of speech, censorship, libel or sedition.

Certainly, the frontier idea that the law does not apply in “Cyberspace” is not true. In fact, conflicting laws from different jurisdictions may apply, simultaneously, to the same event. The Internet does not tend to make geographical and jurisdictional boundaries clear, but Internet users remain in physical jurisdictions and are subject to laws independent of their presence on the Internet.

 As such, a single transaction may involve the laws of at least three jurisdictions:

The laws of the state/nation in which the user resides.

The laws of the state/nation that apply where the server hosting the transaction is located.

The laws of the state/nation which apply to the person or business with whom the transaction takes place.

So a user in one of the United States conducting a transaction with another user in Britain through a server in Canada could theoretically be subject to the laws of all three countries as they relate to the transaction at hand.

In practical terms, a user of the Internet is subject to the laws of the state or nation within which he or she goes online.

Thus, in the U.S., Jake Baker faced criminal charges for his e-conduct, and numerous users of peer-to-peer file-sharing software were subject to civil lawsuits for copyright infringement.

This system runs into conflicts, however, when these suits are international in nature.

Simply put, legal conduct in one nation may be decidedly illegal in another. In fact, even different standards concerning the burden of proof in a civil case can cause jurisdictional problems. For example, an American celebrity, claiming to be insulted by an online American magazine, faces a difficult task of winning a lawsuit against that magazine for libel. But if the celebrity has ties, economic or otherwise, to England, he or she can sue for libel in the British court system, where the standard of “libelous speech” is far lower.

Internet governance is a live issue in international fora such as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the role of the current US-based co-ordinating body, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was discussed in the UN-sponsored World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in December 2003

Internet Law

If there are laws that could govern the Internet, then it appears that such laws would be fundamentally different from laws that geographic nations use today. The unique structure of the Internet has raised several judicial concerns. There is a substantial literature and commentary that the Internet is not only “regulable,” but is already subject to substantial law regulations, both public and private, by many parties and at many different levels. Since the Internet defies geographical boundaries, national laws can not apply globally and it has been suggested instead that the Internet can be self-regulated as being its own trans-national “nation”.

Since the Internet law represents a legal paradigm shift, it is still in the process of development.

In their essay “Law and Borders — The Rise of Law in Cyberspace”, David R. Johnson and David G. Post argue that it became necessary for the Internet to govern itself and instead of obeying the laws of a particular country; “Internet citizens” will obey the laws of electronic entities like service providers.

Instead of identifying as a physical person, Internet citizens will be known by their usernames or email addresses or, more recently, by their Facebook accounts.

Leaving aside the most obvious examples of internet censorship in nations like China or Saudi Arabia or Iran that monitor content, there are four primary modes of regulation of the internet described by Lawrence Lessig in his book, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace:

Law: Standard East Coast Code, and the most self-evident of the four modes of regulation. As the numerous statutes, evolving case law and precedents make clear; many actions on the internet are already subject to conventional legislation (both with regard to transactions conducted on the internet and images posted.

Areas like gambling, child pornography, and fraud are regulated in very similar ways online as off-line. While one of the most controversial and unclear areas of evolving laws is the determination of what forum has subject matter jurisdiction over activity economic and other conducted on the internet, particularly as cross border transactions affect local jurisdictions, it is certainly clear that substantial portions of internet activity are subject to traditional regulation, and that conduct that is unlawful off-line is presumptively unlawful online, and subject to similar laws and regulations. Scandals with major corporations led to US legislation rethinking corporate governance regulations such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

Architecture: West Coast Code: these mechanisms concern the parameters of how information can and cannot be transmitted across the internet. Everything from internet filtering software (which searches for keywords or specific URLs and blocks them before they can even appear on the computer requesting them), to encryption programs, to the very basic architecture of TCP/IP protocol, falls within this category of regulation. It is arguable that all other modes of regulation either rely on, or are significantly supported by, regulation via West Coast Code.

Norms: As in all other modes of social interaction, conduct is regulated by social norms and conventions in significant ways. While certain activities or kinds of conduct online may not be specifically prohibited by the code architecture of the internet, or expressly prohibited by applicable law, nevertheless these activities or conduct will be invisibly regulated by the inherent standards of the community, in this case the internet “users.” And just as certain patterns of conduct will cause an individual to be ostracized from our real world society, so too certain actions will be censored or self-regulated by the norms of whatever community one chooses to associate with on the internet.

Markets: Closely allied with regulation by virtue of social norms, markets also regulate certain patterns of conduct on the internet. While economic markets will have limited influence over non-commercial portions of the internet, the internet also creates a virtual marketplace for information, and such information affects everything from the comparative valuation of services to the traditional valuation of stocks. In addition, the increase in popularity of the internet as a means for transacting all forms of commercial activity, and as a forum for advertisement, has brought the laws of supply and demand in cyberspace.

Net Neutrality

Another major area of interest is net neutrality, which affects the regulation of the infrastructure of the Internet. Though not obvious to most Internet users, every packet of data sent and received by every user on the Internet passes through routers and transmission infrastructure owned by a collection of private and public entities, including telecommunications companies, universities, and governments. This is turning into one of the most critical aspects of Cyberlaw and has immediate jurisdictional implications, as laws in force in one jurisdiction have the potential to have dramatic effects in other jurisdictions when host servers or telecommunications companies are affected.

Free speech on the Internet

Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights calls for the protection of free expression in all media.

In comparison to traditional print-based media, the accessibility and relative anonymity of cyber space has torn down traditional barriers between an individual and his or her ability to publish. Any person with an internet connection has the potential to reach an audience of millions with little-to-no distribution costs. Yet this new form of highly accessible authorship in cyber space raises questions and perhaps magnifies legal complexities relating to the freedom and regulation of speech in cyberspace.

These complexities have taken many forms, three notable examples being the Jake Baker incident, in which the limits of obscene Internet postings were at issue, the controversial distribution of the DeCSS code, and Gutnick v Dow Jones, in which libel laws were considered in the context of online publishing. The last example was particularly significant because it epitomized the complexities inherent to applying one country’s laws (nation-specific by definition) to the internet (international by nature). In 2003, Jonathan Zittrain considered this issue in his paper, “Be Careful What You Ask For: Reconciling a Global Internet and Local Law”.

In the UK the case of Keith-Smith v Williams confirmed that existing libel laws applied to internet discussions.

In terms of the tort liability of ISPs and hosts of internet forums, Section 230(c) of the Communications Decency Act may provide immunity in the United States.

Internet Censorship

In many countries, speech through cyberspace has proven to be another means of communication which has been regulated by the government.

The “Open Net Initiative”, whose mission statement is “to investigate and challenge state filtration and surveillance practices “to”…generate a credible picture of these practices, has released numerous reports documenting the filtration of internet-speech in various countries, While China has thus far proven to be the most rigorous in its attempts to filter unwanted parts of the internet from its citizens, many other countries – including Singapore, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia – have engaged in similar practices of Internet censorship. In one of the most vivid examples of information control, the Chinese government for a short time transparently forwarded requests to the Google search engine to its own, state-controlled search engines.

These examples of filtration bring to light many underlying questions concerning the freedom of speech. For example, does the government have a legitimate role in limiting access to information? And if so, what forms of regulation are acceptable? For example, some argue that the blocking of “BlogSpot” and other websites in India failed to reconcile the conflicting interests of speech and expression on the one hand and legitimate government concerns on the other hand.

The Creation of Privacy in U.S. Internet Law

Warren and Brandeis

At the close of the 19th Century, concerns about privacy captivated the general public, and led to the 1890 publication of Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis: “The Right to Privacy”.

The vitality of this article can be seen today, when examining the USSC decision of Kyllo v. United States, 533 U.S. 27 (2001) where it is cited by the majority, those in concurrence, and even those in dissent.

The motivation of both authors to write such an article is heavily debated amongst scholars; however, two developments during this time give some insight to the reasons behind it. First, the sensationalistic press and the concurrent rise and use of “yellow journalism” to promote the sale of newspapers in the time following the Civil War brought privacy to the forefront of the public eye. The other reason that brought privacy to the forefront of public concern was the technological development of “instant photography”. This article set the stage for all privacy legislation to follow during the 20 and 21st Centuries.

Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test and emerging technology

In 1967, the United States Supreme Court decision in Katz v United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967) established what is known as the Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test to determine the applicability of the Fourth Amendment in a given situation. It should be noted that the test was not noted by the majority, but instead it was articulated by the concurring opinion of Justice Harlan. Under this test, 1) a person must exhibit an “actual (subjective) expectation of privacy” and 2) “the expectation [must] be one that society is prepared to recognize as ‘reasonable.’”

Privacy Act of 1974

Inspired by the Watergate scandal, the United States Congress enacted the Privacy Act of 1974 just four months after the resignation of then President Richard Nixon. In passing this Act, Congress found that “the privacy of an individual is directly affected by the collection, maintenance, use, and dissemination of personal information by Federal agencies” and that “the increasing use of computers and sophisticated information technology, while essential to the efficient operations of the Government, has greatly magnified the harm to individual privacy that can occur from any collection, maintenance, use, or dissemination of personal information.”

For more information see: Privacy Act of 1974

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978

Codified at 50 U.S.C. §§ 1801-1811, this act establishes standards and procedures for use of electronic surveillance to collect “foreign intelligence” within the United States. §1804(a) (7) (B). FISA overrides the Electronic Communications Privacy Act during investigations when foreign intelligence is “a significant purpose” of said investigation. 50 U.S.C. § 1804(a)(7)(B) and §1823(a)(7)(B). Another interesting result of FISA, is the creation of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC). All FISA orders are reviewed by this special court of federal district judges. The FISC meets in secret, with all proceedings usually also held from both the public eye and those targets of the desired surveillance.

For more information see: Foreign Intelligence Act

(1986) Electronic Communication Privacy Act

The ECPA represents an effort by the United States Congress to modernize federal wiretap law. The ECPA amended Title III (see: Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968) and included two new acts in response to developing computer technology and communication networks. Thus the ECPA in the domestic venue into three parts: 1) Wiretap Act, 2) Stored Communications Act, and 3) The Pen Register Act.

Types of Communication

Wire Communication: Any communication containing the human voice that travels at some point across a wired medium such as radio, satellite or cable.

Oral Communication:

Electronic Communication

The Wiretap Act: For Information See Wiretap Act

The Stored Communications Act: For information see Stored Communications Act

The Pen Register Act: For information see Pen Register Act

(1994) Driver’s Privacy Protection Act

The DPPA was passed in response to states selling motor vehicle records to private industry. These records contained personal information such as name, address, phone number, SSN, medical information, height, weight, gender, eye color, photograph and date of birth. In 1994, Congress passed the Driver’s Privacy Protection (DPPA), 18 U.S.C. §§ 2721-2725, to cease this activity.

For more information see: Driver’s Privacy Protection Act

(1999) Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

-This act authorizes widespread sharing of personal information by financial institutions such as banks, insurers, and investment companies. The GLBA permits sharing of personal information between companies joined together or affiliated as well as those companies unaffiliated. To protect privacy, the act requires a variety of agencies such as the SEC, FTC, etc. to establish “appropriate standards for the financial institutions subject to their jurisdiction” to “insure security and confidentiality of customer records and information” and “protect against unauthorized access” to this information. 15 U.S.C. § 6801

For more information see: Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

(2002) Homeland Security Act

-Passed by Congress in 2002, the Homeland Security Act, 6 U.S.C. § 222, consolidated 22 federal agencies into what is commonly known today as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The HSA also created a Privacy Office under the DoHS. The Secretary of Homeland Security must “appoint a senior official to assume primary responsibility for privacy policy.” This privacy official’s responsibilities include but are not limited to: ensuring compliance with the Privacy Act of 1974, evaluating “legislative and regulatory proposals involving the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information by the Federal Government”, while also preparing an annual report to Congress.

For more information see: Homeland Security Act

(2004) Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

-This Act mandates that intelligence be “provided in its most shareable form” that the heads of intelligence agencies and federal departments “promote a culture of information sharing.” The IRTPA also sought to establish protection of privacy and civil liberties by setting up a five-member Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board. This Board offers advice to both the President of the United States and the entire executive branch of the Federal Government concerning its actions to ensure that the branch’s information sharing policies are adequately protecting privacy and civil liberties.

For more information see: Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

Legal enactments – examples

The Computer Misuse Act 1990 enacted by Great Britain on 29 June 1990, and which came into force on 29 August 1990, is an example of one of the earliest of such legal enactments. This Act was enacted with an express purpose of making “provision for securing computer material against unauthorized access or modification.” Certain major provisions of the Computer Misuse Act 1990 relate to:

“Unauthorized access to computer materials”,

“Unauthorized access with intent to commit or facilitate the commission of further offences”, and

“Unauthorized modification of computer material.”

The impact of the Computer Misuse Act 1990 has been limited and with the adoption of the Council of Europe adopts its Convention on Cyber-Crime, it has been indicated that amending legislation would be introduced in parliamentary session 2004–05 in order to rectify possible gaps in its coverage, which are many.

The CMA 1990 has many weaknesses; the most notable is its inability to cater for, or provide suitable protection against, a host of high tech attacks/crimes which have become more prevalent in the last decade. Certain attacks such as DDOS and BOTNET attacks cannot be effectively brought to justice under the CMA. This act has been under review for a number of years. Computer crimes such as electronic theft are usually prosecuted in the UK under the legislation that caters for traditional theft (Theft Act 1968), because the CMA is so ineffective.

A recent example of information technology law is India’s Information Technology Act of 2000 as amended by The Information Technology (amendment) Act of 2008 with The IT Rules of 2011. The Information Technology Act of 2000 was introduced on 9 June 2000. The Information Technology Act of 2000 came into force on 17 October 2000. This Act was amended vide Notification dated 27 October 2009. This Act applies to whole of India, and its provisions also apply to any offence or contravention, committed even outside the territorial jurisdiction of Republic of India, by any person irrespective of his nationality. In order to attract provisions of this Act, such an offence or contravention should involve a computer, computer system, or computer network located in India. The IT Act 2000 provides an extraterritorial applicability to its provisions by virtue of section 1(2) read with section 75.This Act has 90 sections.

India’s The Information Technology Act 2000 has tried to assimilate legal principles available in several such laws (relating to information technology) enacted earlier in several other countries, as also various guidelines pertaining to Information Technology Law. This is a modern legislation with crimes like Hacking, Data theft, Spreading of Virus, Identity Theft, defamation, pornography, child pornography, cyber terrorism, crimes by companies etc. defined at great length.

The IT Rules of 2011 talk about compliance and acts as The Data Protection Law of India

.It also has Rules for Intermediaries (ISP’s, Network service providers, cyber cafes etc.).Section 66A deal with crime of sending offensive messages through communication medium which include sms, mms, email, blogs etc

.Almost all sections are cognizable in nature and persons so affected can apply for compensation from Adjudicator appointed under Section 46.Appeal from adjudicator lies to Cyber Appellate Tribunal.

Many Asian and Middle Eastern nations use any number of combinations of code-based regulation (one of Lessig’s four methods of net regulation) to block material that their governments have deemed inappropriate for their citizens to view. PRC, Saudi Arabia and Iran are three examples of nations that have achieved high degrees of success in regulating their citizens’ access to the Internet.

Electronic signature laws

Australia – Electronic Transactions Act 1999 (Cth) (also note that there is State and Territory mirror legislation)

Costa Rica – Digital Signature Law 8454 (2005)

European Union – Electronic Signature Directive (1999/93/EC)

Mexico – E-Commerce Act [2000]

U.S. – Digital Signature and Electronic Authentication Law

U.S. – Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act

U.S. – Government Paperwork Elimination Act (GPEA)

U.S. – Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)

U.S. – Uniform Electronic Transactions Act – adopted by 46 states

UK – s.7 Electronic Communications Act 2000

Information technology law

Florida Electronic Security Act

Illinois Electronic Commerce Security Act

Texas Penal Code – Computer Crimes Statute

Maine Criminal Code – Computer Crimes

Singapore Electronic Transactions Act

Malaysia Computer Crimes Act

Malaysia Digital Signature Act

UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce

Information Technology Act 2000 of India

Thailand Computer Crimes Act B.E.2550

Information Technology Guidelines

ABA Digital Signature Guidelines

United States Office of Management and Budget

Enforcement agencies

The Information Technology Laws of various countries, and / or their criminal laws generally stipulate enforcement agencies, entrusted with the task of enforcing the legal provisions and requirements.

United States Federal Agencies

Many United States federal agencies oversee the use of information technology. Their regulations are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations of the United States.

Over 25 U.S. federal agencies have regulations concerning the use of digital and electronic signatures.

India

A live example of such an enforcement agency is Cyber Crime Police Station, Bangalore, India’s first exclusive Cyber Crime enforcement agency.

Other examples of such enforcement agencies include:

Cyber Crime Investigation Cell of India’s Mumbai Police.

Cyber Crime Police Station of the state Government of Andhra Pradesh, India. This Police station has jurisdiction over the entire state of Andhra Pradesh, and functions from the Hyderabad city.

In South India, the Crime Branch of Criminal Investigation Department, Tamilnadu police, India, has a Cyber Crime Cell at Chennai.

In East India, Cyber Crime Cells have been set up by the Kolkata Police as well as the Criminal Investigation Department, West Bengal.

Information Technology Lawyer

An information technology attorney is a professional who handles a variety of legal matters related to IT. The attorney gets involved in drafting, negotiating, and interpreting agreements in the areas of software licensing and maintenance, IT consulting, e-commerce, web site hosting and development, and telecommunications agreements, as well as handling dispute resolution and assisting with the client’s Internet domain name portfolio. An information technology attorney works with engineering, IT, and other business units and ensures that customer information gathered by company is collected, stored and used in compliance with privacy policies and applicable laws.

Duties also include providing high quality, specialized and practical advice in business-to-business and business-to-consumer arrangements and advising on issues like IT outsourcing arrangements, software and hardware supply and implementation agreements. An information technology attorney contracts for web site developers and consultants in relation to on-line projects. Provides support and maintains confidentiality/know how agreements. Contracts for Internet service providers and data protection advice. An information technology attorney should have a JD degree or an LL.M degree with admission to the local state bar.

Quotations

“In Cyberspace, the First Amendment is a local ordinance.”

— John Perry Barlow, quoted by Mitchell Kapor in the foreword to The Big Dummy’s Guide to the Internet

“National borders aren’t even speed bumps on the information superhighway.”

— Tim May, signature, from 1996

See also

Berkman Center for Internet & Society

Bernstein v. United States and Junger v. Daley – on free speech protection of software

Computer forensics

Computer crime

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)

Electronic Communications Privacy Act

Export of cryptography

Glossary of legal terms in technology

Software patent debate

Universal v. Reimerdes – test of DMCA

Ouellette v. Viacom International Inc. (DMCA and ADA)

Wassenaar Arrangement

Doe v. 2themart.com Inc. – First Amendment right to speak anonymously

United States v. Ivanov – Applying United States cyber-law to a foreign national operating outside the US

Centers and groups for the study of cyberlaw and related areas

Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School

Centre for Internet and Society, in Bangalore, India.

Institute for Information, Telecommunication and Media Law in Münster, Germany

Institute of Space and Telecommunications Law (IDEST) at University of Paris-Sud, Master’s degree in Space Activities and Telecommunications Law

Master of New Technologies law at Pablo de Olavide University in Seville, Spain

Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law

Stanford Center for Internet and Society, at Stanford Law School

Topics related to cyberlaw

Copyright, especially the Digital Millennium Copyright Act in the United States, and similar laws in other countries

Cyber defamation law

Digital Rights Management

Intellectual property

Internet censorship

Stop Online Piracy Act

Spamming

The Law of Cyber-Space (book)

Conferences related to cyberlaw

State of Play, a conference series put on by the Institute for Information Law & Policy at New York Law School, concerning the intersection of virtual worlds, games and the law.

Further reading

Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, The Future of Ideas, and Free Culture by Lawrence Lessig

Cyber Rights by Mike Godwin

E-Commerce and Internet Law: Treatise with Forms 2d edition, by Ian C. Ballon

The Wikipedia project suffers systemic bias that naturally grows from its contributors’ demographic groups, manifesting an imbalanced coverage of a subject, thereby discriminating against the less represented demographic groups. See an explanation of systemic bias on Wikipedia for how this may affect articles and content. This project aims to control and (possibly) eliminate the cultural perspective gaps made by the systemic bias, consciously focusing upon subjects and points of view neglected by the encyclopedia as a whole. A list of articles needing attention is in the CSB Open Tasks list.

Generally, this project concentrates upon remedying omissions (entire topics, or particular sub-topics in extant articles) rather than on either (1) protesting against inappropriate inclusions, or (2) trying to remedy issues of how material is presented. Thus, the first question is “What haven’t we covered yet?”, rather than “how should we change the existing coverage?” The 22 October 2013 essay by Tom Simonite in MIT’s Technology Review titled “The Decline of Wikipedia” discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on recent downward trends in the number of editors available to support Wikipedia’s range and coverage of topics.

See further reading for studies, statistics, or other information that demonstrate contributor or subject imbalances.

Tasks

There are many things you may do, listed roughly from least to most intensive:

Sign up as a participant and mention any interests you may have related to “Countering systemic bias” (CSB).

Add the Open Tasks box ({{WikiProjectCSBTasks}}) to your User or User talk page to let other people know about the issue.

Read news articles in as many languages as you know, from as many news sources as you can find, from as many political view points as you can find (especially those that you would normally not read) when examining a topical or recent event or editing an existing article related to a particular subject.

Don’t overlook the official news outlets of a country. Certainly they will be more one sided than wikipedians may like, but they may provide a different way of thinking about an article. They may also be useful as a primary source of information about why the government of that particular country has its opinion on a subject and why it acts the way it does. The readers of Wikipedia could benefit from this, regardless of whether they agree with that view or not (if they don’t, they may use it to find errors in its logic or thinking). For example, official news outlets may be useful indicators of how Mainland China thinks about Tibet or Taiwan. Secondly, they may provide relevant non-controversial information about the country or its leaders which could help in improving the article on that topic, for instance, date and place of birth, occupation of leaders, cultural heritage of, links to and other tidbits which may not be available elsewhere.

See if there are web pages on a particular subject which were written by people from other countries or cultures. It may provide you other places to look or other points of view to consider.

Be more conscious of your own biases in the course of normal editing. Look at the articles you work on usually and think about whether they are written from an international perspective. If not, you might be able to learn a lot about a subject you thought you knew by adding content with a different perspective.

Occasionally edit a subject that is systemically biased against the pages of your natural interests. The net effect of consciously changing one out of every twenty of your edits to something outside your “comfort zone” would be substantial.

Create or edit one of the articles listed on the CSB template. If you don’t particularly like any of the subjects on the template, our open tasks list has a wide array of articles in need of attention.

Add to the open tasks list. No one person can fix a system-wide problem, so be sure to tell people when you find needy articles.

Rotate articles from the open tasks list to the template, and other helpful tidying tasks.

Check articles to see if they still need work, and if they’ve been improved move them to the right section or leave a note.

Give feedback on this WikiProject on the talk page.

If you’re multilingual, add information from Wikipedia articles in other languages to their English Wikipedia counterparts.

Contribute to articles on under-represented topics that you are familiar with.

Be careful not to worsen the bias with your deletion nominations. If you are not familiar with a subject area, or it has meaning outside your experience base, discuss your concerns on the talk page or another appropriate forum before making an AfD nomination.

Change the demographic of Wikipedia. Encourage friends and acquaintances that you know have interests that are not well-represented on Wikipedia to edit. If you are at high school or university, contact a professor in minority, women’s, or critical studies, explain the problem, and ask if they would be willing to encourage students to write for Wikipedia. Contact minority or immigrant organizations in your area to see if they would be interested in encouraging their members to contribute. The worst they could say is, “No”. But keep in mind that immigrant organizations may well have a different point of view than the majority of people in the countries they emigrated from (their members may, for example, be members of a minority themselves or may have emigrated because of a disagreement with the government not shared by the majority of the population), which introduces its own systemic bias.

Related WikiProjects and regional noticeboards

There are several WikiProjects and regional notice boards that have potential to help out in our efforts. We may also eventually want to create new WikiProjects as part of this effort.

Members

Please add your name to the member’s page.

If you have specific interests relating to Countering Systematic Bias, feel free to briefly describe them there or on the Wikiproject’s talk page so we can get a sense of the strengths of the project.

   History of the World Wide Web

The NeXT Computer used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN.

In the May 1970 issue of Popular Science magazine, Arthur C. Clarke predicted that satellites would someday “bring the accumulated knowledge of the world to your fingertips” using a console that would combine the functionality of the photocopier, telephone, television and a small computer, allowing data transfer and video conferencing around the globe.

In March 1989, Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal that referenced ENQUIRE, a database and software project he had built in 1980, and described a more elaborate information management system.

With help from Robert Cailliau, he published a more formal proposal on 12 November 1990 to build a “Hypertext project” called “WorldWideWeb” one word, also “W3″ as a “web” of “hypertext documents” to be viewed by “browsers” using client–server architecture.

This proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed within three months and that it would take six months to achieve “the creation of new links and new material by readers, so that authorship becomes universal” as well as “the automatic notification of a reader when new material of interest to him/her has become available.” While the read-only goal was met, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with the wiki concept, blogs, Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom.

The proposal was modeled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a spin-off from the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship at Brown University. The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was a key player in the extension of SGML ISO 8879:1986 to Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high energy physics community, namely a fee for each document and each document alteration.

The CERN datacenter in 2010 housing some WWW servers

A NeXT Computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world’s first web server and also to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the first web browser (which was a web editor as well); the first web server; and the first web pages, which described the project itself.

The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones (computer technologist) of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina revealed in May 2013 that he has a copy of a page given to him by Berners-Lee during a visit to UNC in 1991 which is the oldest known web page. Jones stored it on a magneto-optical drive and on his NeXT computer.

On 6 August 1991, Berners-Lee posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup.

This date also marked the debut of the Web as a publicly available service on the Internet, although new users only access it after August 23.

For this reason this is considered the internaut’s day. Many news media have reported that the first photo on the web was uploaded by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN house band Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro; Gennaro has disclaimed this story, writing that media were “totally distorting our words for the sake of cheap sensationalism.”

The first server outside Europe was set up at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in Palo Alto, California, to host the SPIRES-HEP database. Accounts differ substantially as to the date of this event. The World Wide Web Consortium says December 1992, whereas SLAC itself claims 1991.

This is supported by a W3C document titled A Little History of the World Wide Web.

The crucial underlying concept of hypertext originated with older projects from the 1960s, such as the Hypertext Editing System (HES) at Brown University, Ted Nelson’s Project Xanadu, and Douglas Engelbart’s oN-Line System (NLS). Both Nelson and Engelbart were in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush’s microfilm-based “memex”, which was described in the 1945 essay “As We May Think”.

Berners-Lee’s breakthrough was to marry hypertext to the Internet. In his book weaving the Web, he explains that he had repeatedly suggested that a marriage between the two technologies was possible to members of both technical communities, but when no one took up his invitation, he finally assumed the project himself. In the process, he developed three essential technologies:

a system of globally unique identifiers for resources on the Web and elsewhere, the universal document identifier (UDI), later known as uniform resource locator (URL) and uniform resource identifier (URI);

The publishing language HyperText Markup Language (HTML);

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

The World Wide Web had a number of differences from other hypertext systems available at the time. The web required only unidirectional links rather than bidirectional ones, making it possible for someone to link to another resource without action by the owner of that resource. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing web servers and browsers (in comparison to earlier systems), but in turn presented the chronic problem of link rot. Unlike predecessors such as HyperCard, the World Wide Web was non-proprietary, making it possible to develop servers and clients independently and to add extensions without licensing restrictions. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone, with no fees due.

Coming two months after the announcement that the server implementation of the Gopher protocol was no longer free to use, this produced a rapid shift away from Gopher and towards the Web. An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW for UNIX and the X Windowing System.

Robert Cailliau, Jean-François Abramatic of IBM, and Tim Berners-Lee at the 10th anniversary of the World Wide Web Consortium.

Scholars generally agree that a turning point for the World Wide Web began with the introduction of the Mosaic web browser in 1993, a graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (NCSA-UIUC), led by Marc Andreessen.

Funding for Mosaic came from the U.S. High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative and the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991, one of several computing developments initiated by U.S. Senator Al Gore.

Prior to the release of Mosaic, graphics were not commonly mixed with text in web pages and the web’s popularity was less than older protocols in use over the Internet, such as Gopher and Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS). Mosaic’s graphical user interface allowed the Web to become, by far, the most popular Internet protocol.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in October 1994. It was founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which had pioneered the Internet; a year later, a second site was founded at INRIA (a French national computer research lab) with support from the European Commission DG InfSo; and in 1996, a third continental site was created in Japan at Keio University. By the end of 1994, while the total number of websites was still minute compared to present standards, quite a number of notable websites were already active, many of which are the precursors or inspiration for today’s most popular services.

Connected by the existing Internet, other websites were created around the world, adding international standards for domain names and HTML. Since then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of web standards (such as the markup languages in which web pages are composed), and has advocated his vision of a Semantic Web. The World Wide Web enabled the spread of information over the Internet through an easy-to-use and flexible format. It thus played an important role in popularizing use of the Internet.

Although the two terms are sometimes conflated in popular use, World Wide Web is not synonymous with Internet. The web is a collection of documents and both client and server software using Internet protocols such as TCP/IP and HTTP.

Tim Berners-Lee was knighted in 2004 by Queen Elizabeth II for his contribution to the World Wide Web.

Function

The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not the same. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks. In contrast, the web is one of the services that run on the Internet. It is a collection of text documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs, usually accessed by web browsers from web servers. In short, the web can be thought of as an application “running” on the Internet.

Viewing a web page on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the URL of the page into a web browser or by following a hyperlink to that page or resource. The web browser then initiates a series of communication messages, behind the scenes, in order to fetch and display it. In the 1990s, using a browser to view web pages—and to move from one web page to another through hyperlinks—came to be known as ‘browsing,’ ‘web surfing,’ or ‘navigating the web’. Early studies of this new behavior investigated user patterns in using web browsers. One study, for example, found five user patterns: exploratory surfing, window surfing, evolved surfing, bounded navigation and targeted navigation.

The following example demonstrates how a web browser works. Consider accessing a page with the URL http://example.org/wiki/World_Wide_Web.

First, the browser resolves the server-name portion of the URL (example.org) into an Internet Protocol address using the globally distributed database known as the Domain Name System (DNS); this lookup returns an IP address such as 208.80.152.2. The browser then requests the resource by sending an HTTP request across the Internet to the computer at that particular address. It makes the request to a particular application port in the underlying Internet Protocol Suite so that the computer receiving the request can distinguish an HTTP request from other network protocols it may be servicing such as e-mail delivery; the HTTP protocol normally uses port 80. The content of the HTTP request can be as simple as the two lines of text GET /wiki/World_Wide_Web HTTP/1.1 Host: example.org

The computer receiving the HTTP request delivers it to web server software listening for requests on port 80. If the web server can fulfill the request it sends an HTTP response back to the browser indicating success, which can be as simple as HTTP/1.0 200 OK Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 followed by the content of the requested page. The Hypertext Markup Language for a basic web page looks like <html> <head> <title>Example.org – The World Wide Web</title> </head> <body> <p>The World Wide Web, abbreviated as WWW and commonly known …</p> </body> </html>

The web browser parses the HTML, interpreting the markup (<title>, <p> for paragraph, and such) that surrounds the words in order to draw the text on the screen.

Many web pages use HTML to reference the URLs of other resources such as images, other embedded media, scripts that affect page behavior, and Cascading Style Sheets that affect page layout. The browser will make additional HTTP requests to the web server for these other Internet media types. As it receives their content from the web server, the browser progressively renders the page onto the screen as specified by its HTML and these additional resources.

Linking

Most web pages contain hyperlinks to other related pages and perhaps to downloadable files, source documents, definitions and other web resources. In the underlying HTML, a hyperlink looks like <a href=”http://example.org/wiki/Main_Page“>Example.org, a free encyclopedia</a>

Graphic representation of a minute fraction of the WWW, demonstrating hyperlinks

Such a collection of useful, related resources, interconnected via hypertext links is dubbed a web of information. Publication on the Internet created what Tim Berners-Lee first called the WorldWideWeb (in its original CamelCase, which was subsequently discarded) in November 1990.

The hyperlink structure of the WWW is described by the webgraph: the nodes of the webgraph correspond to the web pages (or URLs) the directed edges between them to the hyperlinks.

Over time, many web resources pointed to by hyperlinks disappear, relocate, or are replaced with different content. This makes hyperlinks obsolete, a phenomenon referred to in some circles as link rot and the hyperlinks affected by it are often called dead links. The ephemeral nature of the Web has prompted many efforts to archive web sites. The Internet Archive, active since 1996, is the best known of such efforts.

Dynamic updates of web pages

Ajax (programming)

JavaScript is a scripting language that was initially developed in 1995 by Brendan Eich, then of Netscape, for use within web pages.

The standardized version is ECMAScript.

To make web pages more interactive, some web applications also use JavaScript techniques such as Ajax (asynchronous JavaScript and XML).

Client-side script is delivered with the page that can make additional HTTP requests to the server, either in response to user actions such as mouse movements or clicks, or based on lapsed time.

The server’s responses are used to modify the current page rather than creating a new page with each response, so the server needs only to provide limited, incremental information. Multiple Ajax requests can be handled at the same time, and users can interact with the page while data is being retrieved. Web pages may also regularly poll the server to check whether new information is available.

WWW prefix

Many hostnames used for the World Wide Web begin with www because of the long-standing practice of naming Internet hosts (servers) according to the services they provide. The hostname for a web server is often www, in the same way that it may be ftp for an FTP server, and news or nntp for a USENET news server. These host names appear as Domain Name System or (DNS) subdomain names, as in www.example.com. The use of ‘www’ as a subdomain name is not required by any technical or policy standard and many web sites do not use it; indeed, the first ever web server was called nxoc01.cern.ch.

According to Paolo Palazzi, who worked at CERN along with Tim Berners-Lee, the popular use of ‘www’ subdomain was accidental.

The World Wide Web project page was intended to be published at www.cern.ch while info.cern.ch was intended to be the CERN home page, however the dns records were never switched, and the practice of prepending ‘www’ to an institution’s website domain name was subsequently copied.

Many established websites still use ‘www’, or they invent other subdomain names such as ‘www2′, ‘secure’, etc.

Many such web servers are set up so that both the domain root (e.g., example.com) and the www subdomain (e.g., www.example.com) refer to the same site; others require one form or the other, or they may map to different web sites.

The use of a subdomain name is useful for load balancing incoming web traffic by creating a CNAME record that points to a cluster of web servers. Since, currently, only a subdomain can be used in a CNAME, the same result cannot be achieved by using the bare domain root.

When a user submits an incomplete domain name to a web browser in its address bar input field, some web browsers automatically try adding the prefix “www” to the beginning of it and possibly “.com”, “.org” and “.net” at the end, depending on what might be missing. For example, entering ‘Microsoft’ may be transformed to http://www.microsoft.com/ and ‘openoffice’ tohttp://www.openoffice.org.

This feature started appearing in early versions of Mozilla Firefox, when it still had the working title ‘Firebird’ in early 2003, from an earlier practice in browsers such as Lynx.

It is reported that Microsoft was granted a US patent for the same idea in 2008, but only for mobile devices.

In English, www is usually read as double-u double-u double-u.

Some users pronounce it dub-dub-dub, particularly in New Zealand. Stephen Fry, in his “Podgrammes” series of podcasts, pronounces it wuh wuh wuh.

The English writer Douglas Adams once quipped in The Independent on Sunday (1999): “The World Wide Web is the only thing I know of whose shortened form takes three times longer to say than what it’s short for”.

In Mandarin Chinese, World Wide Web is commonly translated via a phono-semantic matching to wàn wéi wǎng (万维网), which satisfies www and literally means “myriad dimensional net”, a translation that very appropriately reflects the design concept and proliferation of the World Wide Web.

Tim Berners-Lee’s web-space states that World Wide Web is officially spelled as three separate words, each capitalized, with no intervening hyphens.

Use of the www prefix is declining as Web 2.0 web applications seek to brand their domain names and make them easily pronounceable.

As the mobile web grows in popularity, services like Gmail.com, MySpace.com, Facebook.com and Twitter.com are most often discussed without adding www to the domain (or, indeed, the .com).

Scheme specifiers: http and https

The scheme specifier http:// or https:// at the start of a web URI refers to Hypertext Transfer Protocol or HTTP Secure respectively.

Unlike www, which has no specific purpose, these specify the communication protocol to be used for the request and response.

The HTTP protocol is fundamental to the operation of the World Wide Web and the added encryption layer in HTTPS is essential when confidential information such as passwords or banking information are to be exchanged over the public Internet.

Web browsers usually prepend http:// to addresses too, if omitted.

Web servers

The primary function of a web server is to deliver web pages on the request to clients. This means delivery of HTML documents and any additional content that may be included by a document, such as images, style sheets and scripts.

Privacy

Internet privacy

Every time a web page is requested from a web server the server can identify, and usually it logs, the IP address from which the request arrived. Equally, unless set not to do so, most web browsers record the web pages that have been requested and viewed in a history feature, and usually cache much of the content locally.

Unless HTTPS encryption is used, web requests and responses travel in plain text across the internet and they can be viewed, recorded and cached by intermediate systems.

When a web page asks for, and the user supplies, personally identifiable information such as their real name, address, e-mail address, etc., then a connection can be made between the current web traffic and that individual.

If the website uses HTTP cookies, username and password authentication, or other tracking techniques, then it will be able to relate other web visits, before and after, to the identifiable information provided.

In this way it is possible for a web-based organization to develop and build a profile of the individual people who use its site or sites.

It may be able to build a record for an individual that includes information about their leisure activities, their shopping interests, their profession, and other aspects of their demographic profile.

These profiles are obviously of potential interest to marketeers, advertisers and others.

Depending on the website’s terms and conditions and the local laws that apply information from these profiles may be sold, shared, or passed to other organizations without the user being informed.

For many ordinary people, this means little more than some unexpected e-mails in their in-box, or some uncannily relevant advertising on a future web page.

For others, it can mean that time spent indulging an unusual interest can result in a deluge of further targeted marketing that may be unwelcome.

Law enforcement, counter terrorism and espionage agencies can also identify, target and track individuals based on what appear to be their interests or proclivities on the web.

Social networking sites make a point of trying to get the user to truthfully expose their real names, interests and locations.

This makes the social networking experience more realistic and therefore engaging for all their users.

On the other hand, photographs uploaded and unguarded statements made will be identified to the individual, who may regret some decisions to publish their data.

Employers, schools, parents and other relatives may be influenced by aspects of social networking profiles that the posting individual did not intend for these audiences.

On-line bullies may make use of personal information to harass or stalk users.

Modern social networking websites allow fine grained control of the privacy settings for each individual posting, but these can be complex and not easy to find or use, especially for beginners.

Photographs and videos posted onto websites have caused particular problems, as they can add a person’s face to an on-line profile.

With modern and potential facial recognition technology, it may then be possible to relate that face with other, previously anonymous, images, events and scenarios that have been imaged elsewhere.

Because of image caching, mirroring and copying, it is difficult to remove an image from the World Wide Web.

Intellectual property

The intellectual property rights for any creative work initially rest with its creator.

Web users who want to publish their work onto the World Wide Web, however, need to be aware of the details of the way they do it.

If artwork, photographs, writings, poems, or technical innovations are published by their creator onto a privately owned web server, then they may choose the copyright and other conditions freely themselves.

This is unusual though; more commonly work is uploaded to websites and servers that are owned by other organizations.

It depends upon the terms and conditions of the site or service provider to what extent the original owner automatically signs over rights to their work by the choice of destination and by the act of uploading.

Some users of the web erroneously assume that everything they may find online is freely available to them as if it was in the public domain, which is not always the case.

Content owners that are aware of this widespread belief may expect that their published content will probably be used in some capacity somewhere without their permission.

Some content publishers therefore embed digital watermarks in their media files, sometimes charging users to receive unmarked copies for legitimate use.

Digital rights management includes forms of access control technology that further limit the use of digital content even after it has been bought or downloaded.

Security

The web has become criminals’ preferred pathway for spreading malware.

Cybercrime carried out on the web can include identity theft, fraud, espionage and intelligence gathering.

Web-based vulnerabilities now outnumber traditional computer security concerns, and as measured by Google, about one in ten web pages may contain malicious code.

Most web-based attacks take place on legitimate websites, and most, as measured by Sophos, are hosted in the United States, China and Russia.

The most common of all malware threats is SQL injection attacks against websites.

Through HTML and URIs the web was vulnerable to attacks like cross-site scripting (XSS) that came with the introduction of JavaScript and were exacerbated to some degree by Web 2.0 and Ajax web design that favors the use of scripts.

Today by one estimate, 70% of all websites are open to XSS attacks on their users.

Proposed solutions vary to extremes. Large security vendors like McAfee already design governance and compliance suites to meet post-9/11 regulations, and some, like Finjan have recommended active real-time inspection of code and all content regardless of its source.

Some have argued that for enterprise to see security as a business opportunity rather than a cost center, “ubiquitous, always-on digital rights management” enforced in the infrastructure by a handful of organizations must replace the hundreds of companies that today secure data and networks.

 Jonathan Zittrain has said users sharing responsibility for computing safety is far preferable to locking down the Internet.

Standards

Web standards

Many formal standards and other technical specifications and software define the operation of different aspects of the World Wide Web, the Internet, and computer information exchange.

Many of the documents are the work of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), headed by Berners-Lee, but some are produced by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and other organizations.

Usually, when web standards are discussed, the following publications are seen as foundational:

Recommendations for markup languages, especially HTML and XHTML, from the W3C.

These define the structure and interpretation of hypertext documents.

Recommendations for stylesheets, especially CSS, from the W3C.

Standards for ECMAScript (usually in the form of JavaScript), from Ecma International.

Recommendations for the Document Object Model, from W3C.

Additional publications provide definitions of other essential technologies for the World Wide Web, including, but not limited to, the following:

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), which is a universal system for referencing resources on the Internet, such as hypertext documents and images. URIs, often called URLs, are defined by the IETF’s RFC 3986 / STD 66: Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax, as well as its predecessors and numerous URI scheme-defining RFCs;

HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), especially as defined by RFC 2616: HTTP/1.1 and RFC 2617: HTTP Authentication, which specify how the browser and server authenticate each other.

Accessibility

Web accessibility

There are methods available for accessing the web in alternative mediums and formats, so as to enable use by individuals with disabilities.

These disabilities may be visual, auditory, physical, speech related, cognitive, neurological, or some combination therein.

Accessibility features also help others with temporary disabilities like a broken arm or the aging population as their abilities change.

 The Web is used for receiving information as well as providing information and interacting with society.

The World Wide Web Consortium claims it essential that the Web be accessible in order to provide equal access and equal opportunity to people with disabilities.

Tim Berners-Lee once noted, “The power of the Web is in its universality.

Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.”

Many countries regulate web accessibility as a requirement for websites.

 International cooperation in the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative led to simple guidelines that web content authors as well as software developers can use to make the Web accessible to persons who may or may not be using assistive technology.

Internationalization

The W3C Internationalization Activity assures that web technology will work in all languages, scripts, and cultures.

Beginning in 2004 or 2005, Unicode gained ground and eventually in December 2007 surpassed both ASCII and Western European as the Web’s most frequently used character encoding.

Originally RFC 3986 allowed resources to be identified by URI in a subset of US-ASCII. RFC 3987 allows more characters—any character in the Universal Character Set—and now a resource can be identified by IRI in any language.

Statistics

Between 2005 and 2010, the number of web users doubled, and was expected to surpass two billion in 2010.

Early studies in 1998 and 1999 estimating the size of the web using capture/recapture methods showed that much of the web was not indexed by search engines and the web was much larger than expected.

According to a 2001 study, there were a massive number, over 550 billion, of documents on the Web, mostly in the invisible Web, or Deep Web.

A 2002 survey of 2,024 million web pages determined that by far the most web content was in the English language: 56.4%; next were pages in German (7.7%), French (5.6%), and Japanese (4.9%).

A more recent study, which used web searches in 75 different languages to sample the web, determined that there were over 11.5 billion web pages in the publicly indexable web as of the end of January 2005.

 As of March 2009, the indexable web contains at least 25.21 billion pages.

On 25 July 2008, Google software engineers Jesse Alpert and Nissan Hajaj announced that Google Search had discovered one trillion unique URLs.

As of May 2009, over 109.5 million domains operated.

Of these 74% were commercial or other domains operating in the .com generic top-level domain.

Statistics measuring a website’s popularity are usually based either on the number of page views or on associated server ‘hits’ (file requests) that it receives.

Speed issues

Frustration over congestion issues in the Internet infrastructure and the high latency that results in slow browsing has led to a pejorative name for the World Wide Web: the World Wide Wait.

Speeding up the Internet is an ongoing discussion over the use of peering and QoS technologies.

Other solutions to reduce the congestion can be found at W3C.

Guidelines for web response times are:

0.1 second (one tenth of a second). Ideal response time. The user does not sense any interruption.

1 second. Highest acceptable response time. Download times above 1 second interrupt the user experience.

10 seconds. Unacceptable response time. The user experience is interrupted and the user is likely to leave the site or system.

Caching

Web cache

If a user revisits a web page after only a short interval, the page data may not need to be re-obtained from the source web server.

Almost all web browsers cache recently obtained data, usually on the local hard drive.

HTTP requests sent by a browser will usually ask only for data that has changed since the last download.

If the locally cached data are still current, they will be reused.

Caching helps reduce the amount of web traffic on the Internet.

The decision about expiration is made independently for each downloaded file, whether image, stylesheet, JavaScript, HTML, or other web resource.

Thus even on sites with highly dynamic content, many of the basic resources need to be refreshed only occasionally.

Web site designers find it worthwhile to collate resources such as CSS data and JavaScript into a few site-wide files so that they can be cached efficiently.

This helps reduce page download times and lowers demands on the Web server.

There are other components of the Internet that can cache web content.

Corporate and academic firewalls often cache Web resources requested by one user for the benefit of all. See also caching proxy server.

Some search engines also store cached content from websites.

Apart from the facilities built into web servers that can determine when files have been updated and so need to be re-sent, designers of dynamically generated web pages can control the HTTP headers sent back to requesting users, so that transient or sensitive pages are not cached.

Internet banking and news sites frequently use this facility.

 Data requested with an HTTP ‘GET’ is likely to be cached if other conditions are met; data obtained in response to a ‘POST’ is assumed to depend on the data that was POSTed and so is not cached.

History of the Internet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

History of computing

Hardware

Hardware before 1960 Hardware 1960s to present Hardware in Soviet Bloc countries

Software

Software Unix Free software and open-source software

Computer science

Artificial intelligence Compiler construction Computer science Operating systems Programming languages Software engineering

Modern concepts

Graphical user interface Internet Personal computers Laptops Video games World Wide Web

Timeline of computing

2400 BC–1949 1950–1979 1980–1989 1990–1999 2000–2009 2010–2019 more timelines …

Category

Internet

Visualization of Internet routing paths

An Opte Project visualization of routing paths through a portion of the Internet: General Access, Censorship, Democracy, Digital Divide, Digital Rights, Freedom of Information, History of the Internet, Internet Phenomena, Net Nutrality, Pioneers, Privacy, Sociology, Usage, Governance, Information Infrastructure, Services, Guides, Portal Icon, Internet Portal

History of the Internet

 

The history of the Internet began with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s.

The first message was sent over the ARPANet, which evolved into the internet, from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock’s laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), after the second piece of network equipment was installed at Stanford Research Institute (SRI).

Packet switched networks such as ARPANET, Mark I at NPL in the UK, CYCLADES, Merit Network, Tymnet, and Telenet, and were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of protocols.

The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking, in which multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks.

In 1982, the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was standardized, and consequently, the concept of a world-wide network of interconnected TCP/IP networks, called the Internet, was introduced.

Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) developed the Computer Science Network (CSNET) and again in 1986 when NSFNET provided access to supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. Commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990.

The Internet was commercialized in 1995 when NSFNET was decommissioned, removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic.

Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture and commerce, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) “phone calls”, two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites.

The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as NSF’s very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), Internet2, and National LambdaRail. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more.

The Internet’s takeover of the global communication landscape was almost instant in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993, already 51% by 2000, and more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007.

Today the Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information, commerce, entertainment, and social networking.

Internet history timeline

Early research and development:

1961 – First packet-switching papers

1966 – Merit Network founded

1966 – ARPANET planning starts

1969 – ARPANET carries its first packets

1970 – Mark I network at NPL (UK)

1970 – Network Information Center (NIC)

1971 – Merit Network’s packet-switched network operational

1971 – Tymnet packet-switched network

1972 – Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) established

1973 – CYCLADES network demonstrated

1974 – Telenet packet-switched network

1976 – X.25 protocol approved

1978 – Minitel introduced

1979 – Internet Activities Board (IAB)

1980 – USENET news using UUCP

1980 – Ethernet standard introduced

1981 – BITNET established

Merging the networks and creating the Internet:

1981 – Computer Science Network (CSNET)

1982 – TCP/IP protocol suite formalized

1982 – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

1983 – Domain Name System (DNS)

1983 – MILNET split off from ARPANET

1985 – First .COM domain name registered

1986 – NSFNET with 56 kbit/s links

1986 – Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

1987 – UUNET founded

1988 – NSFNET upgraded to 1.5 Mbit/s (T1)

1988 – OSI Reference Model released

1988 – Morris worm

1989 – Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

1989 – PSINet founded, allows commercial traffic

1989 – Federal Internet Exchanges (FIXes)

1990 – GOSIP (without TCP/IP)

1990 – ARPANET decommissioned

1990 – Advanced Network and Services (ANS)

1990 – UUNET/Alternet allows commercial traffic

1990 – Archie search engine

1991 – Wide area information server (WAIS)

1991 – Gopher

1991 – Commercial Internet eXchange (CIX)

1991 – ANS CO+RE allows commercial traffic

1991 – World Wide Web (WWW)

1992 – NSFNET upgraded to 45 Mbit/s (T3)

1992 – Internet Society (ISOC) established

1993 – Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)

1993 – InterNIC established

1993 – Mosaic web browser released

1994 – Full text web search engines

1994 – North American Network Operators’ Group (NANOG) established

Commercialization, privatization, broader access leads to the modern Internet:

1995 – New Internet architecture with commercial ISPs connected at NAPs

1995 – NSFNET decommissioned

1995 – GOSIP updated to allow TCP/IP

1995 – Very high-speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS)

1995 – IPv6 proposed

1998 – Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

1999 – IEEE 802.11b wireless networking

1999 – Internet2/Abilene Network

1999 – vBNS+ allows broader access

2000 – Dot-com bubble bursts

2001 – New top-level domain names activated

2001 – Code Red I, Code Red II, and Nimda worms

2003 – UN World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) phase I

2003 – National LambdaRail founded

2004 – UN Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG)

2005 – UN WSIS phase II

2006 – First meeting of the Internet Governance Forum

2010 – First internationalized country code top-level domains registered

2012 – ICANN begins accepting applications for new generic top-level domain names

Examples of popular Internet services:

1990 – IMDb Internet movie database

1995 – Amazon.com online retailer

1995 – eBay online auction and shopping

1995 – Craigslist classified advertisements

1996 – Hotmail free web-based e-mail

1997 – Babel Fish automatic translation

1998 – Google Search

1998 – Yahoo! Clubs (now Yahoo! Groups)

1998 – PayPal Internet payment system

1999 – Napster peer-to-peer files sharing

2001 – BitTorrent peer-to-peer files sharing

2001 – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2003 – LinkedIn business networking

2003 – Myspace social networking site

2003 – Skype Internet voice calls

2003 – iTunes Store

2003 – 4Chan Anonymous image-based bulletin board

2003 – The Pirate Bay, torrent file host

2004 – Facebook social networking site

2004 – Podcast media file series

2004 – Flickr image hosting

2005 – YouTube video sharing

2005 – Reddit link voting

2005 – Google Earth virtual globe

2006 – Twitter microblogging

2007 – WikiLeaks anonymous news and information leaks

2007 – Google Street View

2007 – Kindle, e-book reader and virtual bookshop

2008 – Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)

2008 – Dropbox cloud-based file hosting

2008 – Encyclopedia of Life, a collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all living species

2008 – Spotify, a DRM-based music streaming service

2009 – Bing search engine

2009 – Google Docs, Web-based word processor, spreadsheet, presentation, form, and data storage service

2009 – Kickstarter, a threshold pledge system

2011 – Google+ social networking

Further information: Timeline of popular Internet services

Precursors

See also: Victorian Internet

The telegraph system is the first fully digital communication system. Thus the Internet has precursors, such as the telegraph system, that date back to the 19th century, more than a century before the digital Internet became widely used in the second half of the 1990s.

The concept of data communication – transmitting data between two different places, connected via some kind of electromagnetic medium, such as radio or an electrical wire – predates the introduction of the first computers. Such communication systems were typically limited to point to point communication between two end devices.

Telegraph systems and telex machines can be considered early precursors of this kind of communication.

Fundamental theoretical work in data transmission and information theory was developed by Claude Shannon, Harry Nyquist, and Ralph Hartley, during the early 20th century.

Early computers used the technology available at the time to allow communication between the central processing unit and remote terminals.

As the technology evolved, new systems were devised to allow communication over longer distances for terminals or with higher speed for interconnection of local devices that were necessary for the mainframe computer model. Using these technologies made it possible to exchange data such as files between remote computers. However, the point to point communication model was limited, as it did not allow for direct communication between any two arbitrary systems; a physical link was necessary.

The technology was also deemed as inherently unsafe for strategic and military use, because there were no alternative paths for the communication in case of an enemy attack.

Three terminals and an ARPA

RAND Corporation and ARPANET

A pioneer in the call for a global network, J. C. R. Licklider, proposed in his January 1960 paper, “Man-Computer Symbiosis”: “A network of such computers, connected to one another by wide-band communication lines which provided]the functions of present-day libraries together with anticipated advances in information storage and retrieval and [other] symbiotic functions.”

In August 1962, Licklider and Welden Clark published the paper “On-Line Man Computer Communication”, which was one of the first descriptions of a networked future.

In October 1962, Licklider was hired by Jack Ruina as director of the newly established Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) within DARPA, with a mandate to interconnect the United States Department of Defense’s main computers at Cheyenne Mountain, the Pentagon, and SAC HQ. There he formed an informal group within DARPA to further computer research. He began by writing memos describing a distributed network to the IPTO staff, which he called “Members and Affiliates of the Intergalactic Computer Network”.

As part of the information processing office’s role, three network terminals had been installed: one for System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, one for Project

Genie at the University of California, Berkeley and one for the Compatible Time-Sharing System project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Licklider’s identified need for inter-networking would be made obvious by the apparent waste of resources this caused.

For each of these three terminals, I had three different sets of user commands. So if I was talking online with someone at S.D.C. and I wanted to talk to someone I knew at Berkeley or M.I.T. about this, I had to get up from the S.D.C. terminal, go over and log into the other terminal and get in touch with them….

I said, oh man, it’s obvious what to do: If you have these three terminals, there ought to be one terminal that goes anywhere you want to go where you have interactive computing.

That idea is the ARPAnet.

Although he left the IPTO in 1964, five years before the ARPANET went live; it was his vision of universal networking that provided the impetus that led his successors such as Lawrence Roberts and Robert Taylor to further the ARPANET development.

Licklider later returned to lead the IPTO in 1973 for two years.

Packet switching

Len Kleinrock and the first Interface Message Processor.

At the tip of the problem lay the issue of connecting separate physical networks to form one logical network.

During the 1960s, Paul Baran (RAND Corporation) produced a study of survivable networks for the US military.

Information transmitted across Baran’s network would be divided into what he called ‘message-blocks’.

Independently, Donald Davies (National Physical Laboratory, UK), proposed and developed a similar network based on what he called packet-switching, the term that would ultimately be adopted. Leonard Kleinrock (MIT) developed a mathematical theory behind this technology. Packet-switching provides better bandwidth utilization and response times than the traditional circuit-switching technology used for telephony, particularly on resource-limited interconnection links.

Packet switching is a rapid store and forward networking design that divides messages up into arbitrary packets, with routing decisions made per-packet. Early networks used message switched systems that required rigid routing structures prone to single point of failure.

This led Tommy Krash and Paul Baran’s U.S. military funded research to focus on using message-blocks to include network redundancy.

The widespread urban legend that the Internet was designed to resist a nuclear attack likely arose as a result of Baran’s earlier work on packet switching, which did focus on redundancy in the face of a nuclear “holocaust.”

Networks that led to the Internet

ARPANET

Promoted to the head of the information processing office at DARPA, Robert Taylor intended to realize Licklider’s ideas of an interconnected networking system. Bringing in Larry Roberts from MIT, he initiated a project to build such a network.

The first ARPANET link was established between the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the Stanford Research Institute at 22:30 hours on October 29, 1969.

“We set up a telephone connection between us and the guys at SRI …”, Kleinrock … said in an interview: “We typed the L and we asked on the phone,

“Do you see the L?”

“Yes, we see the L,” came the response.

We typed the O, and we asked, “Do you see the O.”

“Yes, we see the O.”

Then we typed the G, and the system crashed …

Yet a revolution had begun” ….

35 Years of the Internet, 1969-2004.

 Stamp of Azerbaijan, 2004.

By December 5, 1969, a 4-node network was connected by adding the University of Utah and the University of California, Santa Barbara. Building on ideas developed in ALOHAnet, the ARPANET grew rapidly.

By 1981, the number of hosts had grown to 213, with a new host being added approximately every twenty days.

ARPANET development was centered around the Request for Comments (RFC) process, still used today for proposing and distributing Internet Protocols and Systems. RFC 1, entitled “Host Software”, was written by Steve Crocker from the University of California, Los Angeles, and published on April 7, 1969. These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing.

ARPANET became the technical core of what would become the Internet, and a primary tool in developing the technologies used.

The early ARPANET used the Network Control Program (NCP, sometimes Network Control Protocol) rather than TCP/IP.

On January 1, 1983, known as Flag Day, NCP on the ARPANET was replaced by the more flexible and powerful family of TCP/IP protocols, marking the start of the modern Internet.

International collaborations on ARPANET were sparse.

For various political reasons, European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks.

Notable exceptions were the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) in 1972, followed in 1973 by Sweden with satellite links to the Tanum Earth Station and Peter Kirstein’s research group in the UK, initially at the Institute of Computer Science, London University and later at University College London.

NPL

In 1965, Donald Davies of the National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom) proposed a national data network based on packet-switching.

The proposal was not taken up nationally, but by 1970 he had designed and built the Mark I packet-switched network to meet the needs of the multidisciplinary laboratory and prove the technology under operational conditions.

By 1976 12 computers and 75 terminal devices were attached and more were added until the network was replaced in 1986.

Merit Network

The Merit Network was formed in 1966 as the Michigan Educational Research Information Triad to explore computer networking between three of Michigan’s public universities as a means to help the state’s educational and economic development.

With initial support from the State of Michigan and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the packet-switched network was first demonstrated in December 1971 when an interactive host to host connection was made between the IBM mainframe computer systems at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and Wayne State University in Detroit.

In October 1972 connections to the CDC mainframe at Michigan State University in East Lansing completed the triad. Over the next several years in addition to host to host interactive connections the network was enhanced to support terminal to host connections, host to host batch connections (remote job submission, remote printing, batch file transfer), interactive file transfer, gateways to the Tymnet and Telenet public data networks, X.25 host attachments, gateways to X.25 data networks, Ethernet attached hosts, and eventually TCP/IP and additional public universities in Michigan join the network.

All of this set the stage for Merit’s role in the NSFNET project starting in the mid-1980s.

CYCLADES

The CYCLADES packet switching network was a French research network designed and directed by Louis Pouzin. First demonstrated in 1973, it was developed to explore alternatives to the initial ARPANET design and to support network research generally. It was the first network to make the hosts responsible for the reliable delivery of data, rather than the network itself, using unreliable datagrams and associated end-to-end protocol mechanisms.

X.25 and public data networks

Main articles: X.25, Bulletin board system, and FidoNet

File:ABC Clarke predicts internet and PC.ogv

1974 ABC interview with Arthur C. Clarke, in which he describes a future of ubiquitous networked personal computers.

Based on ARPA’s research, packet switching network standards were developed by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in the form of X.25 and related standards.

While using packet switching, X.25 is built on the concept of virtual circuits emulating traditional telephone connections. In 1974, X.25 formed the basis for the SERCnet network between British academic and research sites, which later became JANET. The initial ITU Standard on X.25 was approved in March 1976.

The British Post Office, Western Union International and Tymnet collaborated to create the first international packet switched network, referred to as the International Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978. This network grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981.

By the 1990s it provided a worldwide networking infrastructure.

Unlike ARPANET, X.25 was commonly available for business use.

Telenet offered its Telemail electronic mail service, which was also targeted to enterprise use rather than the general email system of the ARPANET.

The first public dial-in networks used asynchronous TTY terminal protocols to reach a concentrator operated in the public network. Some networks, such as CompuServe, used X.25 to multiplex the terminal sessions into their packet-switched backbones, while others, such as Tymnet, used proprietary protocols.

 In 1979, CompuServe became the first service to offer electronic mail capabilities and technical support to personal computer users.

The company broke new ground again in 1980 as the first to offer real-time chat with its CB Simulator. Other major dial-in networks were America Online (AOL) and Prodigy that also provided communications, content, and entertainment features.

Many bulletin board system (BBS) networks also provided on-line access, such as FidoNet which was popular amongst hobbyist computer users, many of them hackers and amateur radio operators.

UUCP and Usenet

In 1979, two students at Duke University, Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis, came up with the idea of using simple Bourne shell scripts to transfer news and messages on a serial line UUCP connection with nearby University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Following public release of the software, the mesh of UUCP hosts forwarding on the Usenet news rapidly expanded. UUCPnet, as it would later be named, also created gateways and links between FidoNet and dial-up BBS hosts.

UUCP networks spread quickly due to the lower costs involved, ability to use existing leased lines, X.25 links or even ARPANET connections, and the lack of strict use policies (commercial organizations who might provide bug fixes) compared to later networks like CSNET and Bitnet.

All connects were local. By 1981 the number of UUCP hosts had grown to 550, nearly doubling to 940 in 1984.

 Sublink Network, operating since 1987 and officially founded in Italy in 1989, based its interconnectivity upon UUCP to redistribute mail and news groups messages throughout its Italian nodes (about 100 at the time) owned both by private individuals and small companies.

Sublink Network represented possibly one of the first examples of the internet technology becoming progress through popular diffusion.

Merging the networks and creating the Internet (1973–90)

TCP/IP

Map of the TCP/IP test network in February 1982

 Internet Protocol Suite

With so many different network methods, something was needed to unify them. Robert E. Kahn of DARPA and ARPANET recruited Vinton Cerf of Stanford University to work with him on the problem.

By 1973, they had worked out a fundamental reformulation, where the differences between network protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, and instead of the network being responsible for reliability, as in the ARPANET, the hosts became responsible. Cerf credits Hubert Zimmermann, Gerard LeLann and Louis Pouzin (designer of the CYCLADES network) with important work on this design.

The specification of the resulting protocol, RFC 675 – Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine, Network Working Group, December 1974, contains the first attested use of the term internet, as a shorthand for internetworking; later RFCs repeat this use, so the word started out as an adjective rather than the noun it is today.

A Stanford Research Institute’s Packet Radio Van, site of the first three-way internetworked transmission.

With the role of the network reduced to the bare minimum, it became possible to join almost any networks together, no matter what their characteristics were, thereby solving Kahn’s initial problem. DARPA agreed to fund development of prototype software, and after several years of work, the first demonstration of a gateway between the Packet Radio network in the SF Bay area and the ARPANET was conducted by the Stanford Research Institute.

On November 22, 1977 a three network demonstration was conducted including the ARPANET, the SRI’s Packet Radio Van on the Packet Radio Network and the Atlantic Packet Satellite network.

Stemming from the first specifications of TCP in 1974, TCP/IP emerged in mid-late 1978 in nearly final form. By 1981, the associated standards were published as RFCs 791, 792 and 793 and adopted for use. DARPA sponsored or encouraged the development of TCP/IP implementations for many operating systems and then scheduled a migration of all hosts on all of its packet networks to TCP/IP.

 On January 1, 1983, known as Flag Day, TCP/IP protocols became the only approved protocol on the ARPANET, replacing the earlier NCP protocol.

From ARPANET to NSFNET

Main articles: ARPANET and NSFNET

BBN Technologies TCP/IP internet map early 1986

After the ARPANET had been up and running for several years, ARPA looked for another agency to hand off the network to; ARPA’s primary mission was funding cutting edge research and development, not running a communications utility.

Eventually, in July 1975, the network had been turned over to the Defense Communications Agency, also part of the Department of Defense.

In 1983, the U.S. military portion of the ARPANET was broken off as a separate network, the MILNET.

 MILNET subsequently became the unclassified but military-only NIPRNET, in parallel with the SECRET-level SIPRNET and JWICS for TOP SECRET and above. NIPRNET does have controlled security gateways to the public Internet.

The networks based on the ARPANET were government funded and therefore restricted to noncommercial uses such as research; unrelated commercial use was strictly forbidden.

This initially restricted connections to military sites and universities.

During the 1980s, the connections expanded to more educational institutions, and even to a growing number of companies such as Digital Equipment Corporation and Hewlett-Packard, which were participating in research projects or providing services to those who were.

Several other branches of the U.S. government, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Department of Energy (DOE) became heavily involved in Internet research and started development of a successor to ARPANET.

In the mid-1980s, all three of these branches developed the first Wide Area Networks based on TCP/IP. NASA developed the NASA Science Network, NSF developed CSNET and DOE evolved the Energy Sciences Network or ESNet.

T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992

NASA developed the TCP/IP based NASA Science Network (NSN) in the mid-1980s, connecting space scientists to data and information stored anywhere in the world. In 1989, the DECnet-based Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) and the TCP/IP-based NASA Science Network (NSN) were brought together at NASA Ames Research Center creating the first multiprotocol wide area network called the NASA Science Internet, or NSI.

NSI was established to provide a totally integrated communications infrastructure to the NASA scientific community for the advancement of earth, space and life sciences.

As a high-speed, multiprotocol, international network, NSI provided connectivity to over 20,000 scientists across all seven continents.

In 1981 NSF supported the development of the Computer Science Network (CSNET). CSNET connected with ARPANET using TCP/IP, and ran TCP/IP over X.25, but it also supported departments without sophisticated network connections, using automated dial-up mail exchange.

Its experience with CSNET lead NSF to use TCP/IP when it created NSFNET, a 56 kbit/s backbone established in 1986, to support the NSF sponsored supercomputing centers. The NSFNET Project also provided support for the creation of regional research and education networks in the United States and for the connection of university and college campus networks to the regional networks.

The use of NSFNET and the regional networks was not limited to supercomputer users and the 56 kbit/s network quickly became overloaded. NSFNET was upgraded to 1.5 Mbit/s in 1988 under a cooperative agreement with the Merit Network in partnership with IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan.

The existence of NSFNET and the creation of Federal Internet Exchanges (FIXes) allowed the ARPANET to be decommissioned in 1990. NSFNET was expanded and upgraded to 45 Mbit/s in 1991, and was decommissioned in 1995 when it was replaced by backbones operated by several commercial Internet Service Providers.

Transition towards the Internet

The term “internet” was adopted in the first RFC published on the TCP protocol (RFC 675:

 Internet Transmission Control Program, December 1974, as an abbreviation of the term internetworking and the two terms were used interchangeably.

In general, an internet was any network using TCP/IP.

 It was around the time when ARPANET was interlinked with NSFNET in the late 1980s, that the term was used as the name of the network, Internet, being the large and global TCP/IP network.

As interest in widespread networking grew and new applications for it were developed, the Internet’s technologies spread throughout the rest of the world. The network-agnostic approach in TCP/IP meant that it was easy to use any existing network infrastructure, such as the IPSS X.25 network, to carry Internet traffic. In 1984, University College London replaced its transatlantic satellite links with TCP/IP over IPSS.

Many sites unable to link directly to the Internet started to create simple gateways to allow transfer of email, at that time the most important application.

Sites which only had intermittent connections used UUCP or FidoNet and relied on the gateways between these networks and the Internet. Some gateway services went beyond simple email peering, such as allowing access to FTP sites via UUCP or email.

Finally, the Internet’s remaining centralized routing aspects were removed. The EGP routing protocol was replaced by a new protocol, the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).

This turned the Internet into a meshed topology and moved away from the centric architecture which ARPANET had emphasized. In 1994, Classless Inter-Domain Routing was introduced to support better conservation of address space which allowed use of route aggregation to decrease the size of routing tables.

TCP/IP goes global (1989–2010)

CERN, the European Internet, the link to the Pacific and beyond

Between 1984 and 1988 CERN began installation and operation of TCP/IP to interconnect its major internal computer systems, workstations, PCs and an accelerator control system. CERN continued to operate a limited self-developed system (CERNET) internally and several incompatible (typically proprietary) network protocols externally. There was considerable resistance in Europe towards more widespread use of TCP/IP, and the CERN TCP/IP intranets remained isolated from the Internet until 1989.

In 1988, Daniel Karrenberg, from Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in Amsterdam, visited Ben Segal, CERN’s TCP/IP Coordinator, looking for advice about the transition of the European side of the UUCP Usenet network (much of which ran over X.25 links) over to TCP/IP. In 1987, Ben Segal had met with Len Bosack from the then still small company Cisco about purchasing some TCP/IP routers for CERN, and was able to give Karrenberg advice and forward him on to Cisco for the appropriate hardware. This expanded the European portion of the Internet across the existing UUCP networks, and in 1989 CERN opened its first external TCP/IP connections.

This coincided with the creation of Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE), initially a group of IP network administrators who met regularly to carry out co-ordination work together. Later, in 1992, RIPE was formally registered as a cooperative in Amsterdam.

At the same time as the rise of internetworking in Europe, ad hoc networking to ARPA and in-between Australian universities formed, based on various technologies such as X.25 and UUCPNet.

These were limited in their connection to the global networks, due to the cost of making individual international UUCP dial-up or X.25 connections. In 1989, Australian universities joined the push towards using IP protocols to unify their networking infrastructures.

AARNet was formed in 1989 by the Australian Vice-Chancellors’ Committee and provided a dedicated IP based network for Australia.

The Internet began to penetrate Asia in the late 1980s.

Japan, which had built the UUCP-based network JUNET in 1984, connected to NSFNET in 1989. It hosted the annual meeting of the Internet Society, INET’92, in Kobe. Singapore developed TECHNET in 1990, and Thailand gained a global Internet connection between Chulalongkorn University and UUNET in 1992.

Global digital divide

Internet users in 2012 as a percentage of a country’s population

Source: International Telecommunications Union.

Global digital divide and Digital divide

Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012

As a percentage of a country’s population

Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012 as a percentage of a country’s population

Source: International Telecommunications Union.

While developed countries with technological infrastructures were joining the Internet, developing countries began to experience a digital divide separating them from the Internet. On an essentially continental basis, they are building organizations for Internet resource administration and sharing operational experience, as more and more transmission facilities go into place.

Africa

At the beginning of the 1990s, African countries relied upon X.25 IPSS and 2400 baud modem UUCP links for international and internetwork computer communications.

In August 1995, InfoMail Uganda, Ltd., a privately held firm in Kampala now known as InfoCom, and NSN Network Services of Avon, Colorado, sold in 1997 and now known as Clear Channel Satellite, established Africa’s first native TCP/IP high-speed satellite Internet services.

The data connection was originally carried by a C-Band RSCC Russian satellite which connected InfoMail’s Kampala offices directly to NSN’s MAE-West point of presence using a private network from NSN’s leased ground station in New Jersey.

InfoCom’s first satellite connection was just 64 kbit/s, serving a Sun host computer and twelve US Robotics dial-up modems.

In 1996, a USAID funded project, the Leland Initiative, started work on developing full Internet connectivity for the continent. Guinea, Mozambique, Madagascar and Rwanda gained satellite earth stations in 1997, followed by Côte d’Ivoire and Benin in 1998.

Africa is building an Internet infrastructure. AfriNIC, headquartered in Mauritius, manages IP address allocation for the continent. As do the other Internet regions, there is an operational forum, the Internet Community of Operational Networking Specialists.

There are many programs to provide high-performance transmission plant, and the western and southern coasts have undersea optical cable. High-speed cables join North Africa and the Horn of Africa to intercontinental cable systems. Undersea cable development is slower for East Africa; the original joint effort between New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the East Africa Submarine System (Eassy) has broken off and may become two efforts.

Asia and Oceania

The Asia Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC), headquartered in Australia, manages IP address allocation for the continent. APNIC sponsors an operational forum, the Asia-Pacific Regional Internet Conference on Operational Technologies (APRICOT).

In 1991, the People’s Republic of China saw its first TCP/IP college network, Tsinghua University’s TUNET. The PRC went on to make its first global Internet connection in 1994, between the Beijing Electro-Spectrometer Collaboration and Stanford University’s Linear Accelerator Center. However, China went on to implement its own digital divide by implementing a country-wide content filter.

Latin America

As with the other regions, the Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry (LACNIC) manages the IP address space and other resources for its area. LACNIC, headquartered in Uruguay, operates DNS root, reverse DNS, and other key services.

Opening the network to commerce

The interest in commercial use of the Internet became a hotly debated topic. Although commercial use was forbidden, the exact definition of commercial use could be unclear and subjective. UUCPNet and the X.25 IPSS had no such restrictions, which would eventually see the official barring of UUCPNet use of ARPANET and NSFNET connections. Some UUCP links still remained connecting to these networks however, as administrators cast a blind eye to their operation.

Number of Internet hosts worldwide: 1981–2012

Source: Internet Systems Consortium.

During the late 1980s, the first Internet service provider (ISP) companies were formed. Companies like PSINet, UUNET, Netcom, and Portal Software were formed to provide service to the regional research networks and provide alternate network access, UUCP-based email and Usenet News to the public. The first commercial dialup ISP in the United States was The World, which opened in 1989.

In 1992, the U.S. Congress passed the Scientific and Advanced-Technology Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1862(g), which allowed NSF to support access by the research and education communities to computer networks which were not used exclusively for research and education purposes, thus permitting NSFNET to interconnect with commercial networks.

This caused controversy within the research and education community, who were concerned commercial use of the network, might lead to an Internet that was less responsive to their needs, and within the community of commercial network providers, who felt that government subsidies were giving an unfair advantage to some organizations.

By 1990, ARPANET had been overtaken and replaced by newer networking technologies and the project came to a close. New network service providers including PSINet, Alternet, CERFNet, ANS CO+RE, and many others were offering network access to commercial customers. NSFNET was no longer the de facto backbone and exchange point for Internet. The Commercial Internet eXchange (CIX), Metropolitan Area Exchanges (MAEs), and later Network Access Points (NAPs) were becoming the primary interconnections between many networks. The final restrictions on carrying commercial traffic ended on April 30, 1995 when the National Science Foundation ended its sponsorship of the NSFNET Backbone Service and the service ended.

NSF provided initial support for the NAPs and interim support to help the regional research and education networks transition to commercial ISPs.

NSF also sponsored the very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS) which continued to provide support for the supercomputing centers and research and education in the United States.

Networking in outer space

 Interplanetary Internet

The first live Internet link into low earth orbit was established on January 22, 2010 when astronaut T. J. Creamer posted the first unassisted update to his Twitter account from the International Space Station, marking the extension of the Internet into space.

Astronauts at the ISS had used email and Twitter before, but these messages had been relayed to the ground through a NASA data link before being posted by a human proxy.

This personal Web access, which NASA calls the Crew Support LAN, uses the space station’s high-speed Ku band microwave link. To surf the Web, astronauts can use a station laptop computer to control a desktop computer on Earth, and they can talk to their families and friends on Earth using Voice over IP equipment.

Communication with spacecraft beyond earth orbit has traditionally been over point-to-point links through the Deep Space Network.

Each such data link must be manually scheduled and configured.

In the late 1990s NASA and Google began working on a new network protocol, Delay-tolerant networking (DTN) which automates this process, allows networking of spaceborne transmission nodes, and takes the fact into account that spacecraft can temporarily lose contact because they move behind the Moon or planets, or because space “weather” disrupts the connection. Under such conditions, DTN retransmits data packages instead of dropping them, as the standard TCP/IP internet protocol does. NASA conducted the first field test of what it calls the “deep space internet” in November 2008.

Testing of DTN-based communications between the International Space Station and Earth (now termed Disruption-Tolerant Networking) has been ongoing since March 2009, and is scheduled to continue until March 2014.

This network technology is supposed to ultimately enable missions that involve multiple spacecraft where reliable inter-vessel communication might take precedence over vessel-to-earth downlinks. According to a February 2011 statement by Google’s Vint Cerf, the so-called “Bundle protocols” have been uploaded to NASA’s EPOXI mission spacecraft (which is in orbit around the Sun) and communication with Earth has been tested at a distance of approximately 80 light seconds.

Internet governance

As a globally distributed network of voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks, the Internet operates without a central governing body. It has no centralized governance for either technology or policies, and each constituent network chooses what technologies and protocols it will deploy from the voluntary technical standards that are developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

 However, throughout its entire history, the Internet system has had an “Internet Assigned Numbers Authority” (IANA) for the allocation and assignment of various technical identifiers needed for the operation of the Internet.

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) provides oversight and coordination for two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System.

NIC, InterNIC, IANA and ICANN

InterNIC, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, and ICANN

The IANA function was originally performed by USC Information Sciences Institute, and it delegated portions of this responsibility with respect to numeric network and autonomous system identifiers to the Network Information Center (NIC) at Stanford Research Institute (SRI International) in Menlo Park, California. In addition to his role as the RFC Editor, Jon Postel worked as the manager of IANA until his death in 1998.

As the early ARPANET grew, hosts were referred to by names, and a HOSTS.TXT file would be distributed from SRI International to each host on the network. As the network grew, this became cumbersome. A technical solution came in the form of the Domain Name System, created by Paul Mockapetris.

The Defense Data Network—Network Information Center (DDN-NIC) at SRI handled all registration services, including the top-level domains (TLDs) of .mil, .gov, .edu, .org, .net, .com and .us, root nameserver administration and Internet number assignments under a United States Department of Defense contract.

 In 1991, the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) awarded the administration and maintenance of DDN-NIC (managed by SRI up until this point) to Government Systems, Inc., who subcontracted it to the small private-sector Network Solutions, Inc.

The increasing cultural diversity of the Internet also posed administrative challenges for centralized management of the IP addresses.

In October 1992, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) published RFC 1366, which described the “growth of the Internet and its increasing globalization” and set out the basis for an evolution of the IP registry process, based on a regionally distributed registry model.

This document stressed the need for a single Internet number registry to exist in each geographical region of the world (which would be of “continental dimensions”). Registries would be “unbiased and widely recognized by network providers and subscribers” within their region. The RIPE Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC) was established as the first RIR in May 1992.

The second RIR, the Asia Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC), was established in Tokyo in 1993, as a pilot project of the Asia Pacific Networking Group.

Since at this point in history most of the growth on the Internet was coming from non-military sources, it was decided that the Department of Defense would no longer fund registration services outside of the .mil TLD.

In 1993 the U.S. National Science Foundation, after a competitive bidding process in 1992, created the InterNIC to manage the allocations of addresses and management of the address databases, and awarded the contract to three organizations.

Registration Services would be provided by Network Solutions; Directory and Database Services would be provided by AT&T; and Information Services would be provided by General Atomics.

Over time, after consultation with the IANA, the IETF, RIPE NCC, APNIC, and the Federal Networking Council (FNC), the decision was made to separate the management of domain names from the management of IP numbers.

Following the examples of RIPE NCC and APNIC, it was recommended that management of IP address space then administered by the InterNIC should be under the control of those that use it, specifically the ISPs, end-user organizations, corporate entities, universities, and individuals. As a result, the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) was established as in December 1997, as an independent, not-for-profit corporation by direction of the National Science Foundation and became the third Regional Internet Registry.

In 1998, both the IANA and remaining DNS-related InterNIC functions were reorganized under the control of ICANN, a California non-profit corporation contracted by the United States Department of Commerce to manage a number of Internet-related tasks. As these tasks involved technical coordination for two principal Internet name spaces (DNS names and IP addresses) created by the IETF, ICANN also signed a memorandum of understanding with the IAB to define the technical work to be carried out by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

The management of Internet address space remained with the regional Internet registries, which collectively were defined as a supporting organization within the ICANN structure.

ICANN provides central coordination for the DNS system, including policy coordination for the split registry / registrar system, with competition among registry service providers to serve each top-level-domain and multiple competing registrars offering DNS services to end-users.

Internet Engineering Task Force

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is the largest and most visible of several loosely related ad-hoc groups that provide technical direction for the Internet, including the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF).

The IETF is a loosely self-organized group of international volunteers who contribute to the engineering and evolution of Internet technologies. It is the principal body engaged in the development of new Internet standard specifications.

Much of the IETF’s work is done in Working Groups.

It does not “run the Internet”, despite what some people might mistakenly say. The IETF does make voluntary standards that are often adopted by Internet users, but it does not control, or even patrol, the Internet.

The IETF started in January 1986 as a quarterly meeting of U.S. government funded researchers. Non-government representatives were invited starting with the fourth IETF meeting in October 1986.

The concept of Working Groups was introduced at the fifth IETF meeting in February 1987.

The seventh IETF meeting in July 1987 was the first meeting with more than 100 attendees. In 1992, the Internet Society, a professional membership society, was formed and IETF began to operate under it as an independent international standards body. The first IETF meeting outside of the United States was held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in July 1993.

Today the IETF meets three times a year and attendance is often about 1,300 people, but has been as high as 2,000 upon occasion.

Typically one in three IETF meetings is held in Europe or Asia. The number of non-US attendees is roughly 50%, even at meetings held in the United States.

The IETF is unusual in that it exists as a collection of happenings, but is not a corporation and has no board of directors, no members, and no dues.

The closest thing there is to being an IETF member is being on the IETF or a Working Group mailing list. IETF volunteers come from all over the world and from many different parts of the Internet community. The IETF works closely with and under the supervision of the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB).

The Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Internet Research Steering Group (IRSG), peer activities to the IETF and IESG under the general supervision of the IAB, focus on longer term research issues.

Request for Comments

Request for Comments (RFCs) are the main documentation for the work of the IAB, IESG, IETF, and IRTF. RFC 1, “Host Software”, was written by Steve Crocker at UCLA in April 1969, well before the IETF was created. Originally they were technical memos documenting aspects of ARPANET development and were edited by Jon Postel, the first RFC Editor.

RFCs cover a wide range of information from proposed standards, draft standards, full standards, best practices, experimental protocols, history, and other informational topics.

RFCs can be written by individuals or informal groups of individuals, but many are the product of a more formal Working Group. Drafts are submitted to the IESG either by individuals or by the Working Group Chair. An RFC Editor, appointed by the IAB, separate from IANA, and working in conjunction with the IESG, receives drafts from the IESG and edits, formats, and publishes them. Once an RFC is published, it is never revised. If the standard it describes changes or its information becomes obsolete, the revised standard or updated information will be re-published as a new RFC that “obsoletes” the original.

The Internet Society

The Internet Society or ISOC is an international, nonprofit organization founded during 1992 to “to assure the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world”.

With offices near Washington, DC, USA, and in Geneva, Switzerland, ISOC has a membership base comprising more than 80 organizational and more than 50,000 individual members.

Members also form “chapters” based on either common geographical location or special interests.

There are currently more than 90 chapters around the world.

ISOC provides financial and organizational support to and promotes the work of the standards settings bodies for which it is the organizational home: the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF). ISOC also promotes understanding and appreciation of the Internet model of open, transparent processes and consensus-based decision making.

Globalization and Internet governance in the 21st century

Since the 1990s, the Internet’s governance and organization has been of global importance to governments, commerce, civil society, and individuals.

The organizations which held control of certain technical aspects of the Internet were the successors of the old ARPANET oversight and the current decision-makers in the day-to-day technical aspects of the network.

While recognized as the administrators of certain aspects of the Internet, their roles and their decision making authority are limited and subject to increasing international scrutiny and increasing objections.

These objections have led to the ICANN removing themselves from relationships with first the University of Southern California in 2000, and finally in September 2009, gaining autonomy from the US government by the ending of its longstanding agreements, although some contractual obligations with the U.S. Department of Commerce continued.

The IETF, with financial and organizational support from the Internet Society, continues to serve as the Internet’s ad-hoc standards body and issues Request for Comments.

In November 2005, the World Summit on the Information Society, held in Tunis, called for an Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to be convened by United Nations Secretary General. The IGF opened an ongoing, non-binding conversation among stakeholders representing governments, the private sector, civil society, and the technical and academic communities about the future of Internet governance. The first IGF meeting was held in October/November 2006 with follow up meetings annually thereafter.

Since WSIS, the term “Internet governance” has been broadened beyond narrow technical concerns to include a wider range of Internet-related policy issues.

Use and culture

Sociology of the Internet

Email and Usenet

 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, and Usenet

Email is often called the killer application of the Internet. However, it actually predates the Internet and was a crucial tool in creating it.

Email started in 1965 as a way for multiple users of a time-sharing mainframe computer to communicate. Although the history is unclear, among the first systems to have such a facility were SDC’s Q32 and MIT’s CTSS.

The ARPANET computer network made a large contribution to the evolution of email.

There is one report indicating experimental inter-system email transfers on it shortly after ARPANET’s creation. In 1971 Ray Tomlinson created what was to become the standard Internet email address format, using the @ sign to separate user names from host names.

A number of protocols were developed to deliver messages among groups of time-sharing computers over alternative transmission systems, such as UUCP and IBM’s VNET email system. Email could be passed this way between a number of networks, including ARPANET, BITNET and NSFNET, as well as to hosts connected directly to other sites via UUCP. See the history of SMTP protocol.

In addition, UUCP allowed the publication of text files that could be read by many others. The News software developed by Steve Daniel and Tom Truscott in 1979 was used to distribute news and bulletin board-like messages. This quickly grew into discussion groups, known as newsgroups, on a wide range of topics. On ARPANET and NSFNET similar discussion groups would form via mailing lists, discussing both technical issues and more culturally focused topics (such as science fiction, discussed on the sflovers mailing list).

During the early years of the Internet, email and similar mechanisms were also fundamental to allow people to access resources that were not available due to the absence of online connectivity. UUCP was often used to distribute files using the ‘alt.binary’ groups. Also, FTP e-mail gateways allowed people that lived outside the US and Europe to download files using ftp commands written inside email messages.

The file was encoded, broken in pieces and sent by email; the receiver had to reassemble and decode it later, and it was the only way for people living overseas to download items such as the earlier Linux versions using the slow dial-up connections available at the time. After the popularization of the Web and the HTTP protocol such tools were slowly abandoned.

From Gopher to the WWW

History of the World Wide Web and World Wide Web

As the Internet grew through the 1980s and early 1990s, many people realized the increasing need to be able to find and organize files and information.

Projects such as Archie, Gopher, WAIS, and the FTP Archive list attempted to create ways to organize distributed data. In the early 1990s, Gopher, invented by Mark P. McCahill offered a viable alternative to the World Wide Web.

However, by the mid-1990s it became clear that Gopher and the other projects fell short in being able to accommodate all the existing data types and in being able to grow without bottlenecks.

One of the most promising user interface paradigms during this period was hypertext.

The technology had been inspired by Vannevar Bush’s “Memex” and developed through Ted Nelson’s research on Project Xanadu and Douglas Engelbart’s research on NLS.

Many small self-contained hypertext systems had been created before, such as Apple Computer’s HyperCard (1987). Gopher became the first commonly used hypertext interface to the Internet. While Gopher menu items were examples of hypertext, they were not commonly perceived in that way.

This NeXT Computer was used by Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world’s first Web server.

In 1989, while working at CERN, Tim Berners-Lee invented a network-based implementation of the hypertext concept. By releasing his invention to public use, he ensured the technology would become widespread.

For his work in developing the World Wide Web, Berners-Lee received the Millennium technology prize in 2004.

One early popular web browser, modeled after HyperCard, was ViolaWWW.

A turning point for the World Wide Web began with the introduction of the Mosaic web browser in 1993, a graphical browser developed by a team at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (NCSA-UIUC), led by Marc Andreessen. Funding for Mosaic came from the High-Performance Computing and Communications Initiative, a funding program initiated by the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991 also known as the Gore Bill.

 Mosaic’s graphical interface soon became more popular than Gopher, which at the time was primarily text-based, and the WWW became the preferred interface for accessing the Internet. (Gore’s reference to his role in “creating the Internet”, however, was ridiculed in his presidential election campaign. See the full article Al Gore and information technology).

Mosaic was eventually superseded in 1994 by Andreessen’s Netscape Navigator, which replaced Mosaic as the world’s most popular browser.

While it held this title for some time, eventually competition from Internet Explorer and a variety of other browsers almost completely displaced it. Another important event held on January 11, 1994, was The Superhighway Summit at UCLA’s Royce Hall.

This was the “first public conference bringing together all of the major industry, government and academic leaders in the field and also began the national dialogue about the Information Superhighway and its implications.”

24 Hours in Cyberspace, “the largest one-day online event” (February 8, 1996) up to that date, took place on the then-active website, cyber24.com. It was headed by photographer Rick Smolan.

A photographic exhibition was unveiled at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History on January 23, 1997, featuring 70 photos from the project.

Search engines

Search engine (computing)

A list of important Internet projects on the web indicating how the web has evolved over the past several years

Even before the World Wide Web, there were search engines that attempted to organize the Internet. The first of these was the Archie search engine from McGill University in 1990, followed in 1991 by WAIS and Gopher. All three of those systems predated the invention of the World Wide Web but all continued to index the Web and the rest of the Internet for several years after the Web appeared. There are still Gopher servers as of 2006, although there are a great many more web servers.

As the Web grew, search engines and Web directories were created to track pages on the Web and allow people to find things.

The first full-text Web search engine was WebCrawler in 1994.

Before WebCrawler, only Web page titles were searched. Another early search engine, Lycos, was created in 1993 as a university project, and was the first to achieve commercial success. During the late 1990s, both Web directories and Web search engines were popular—Yahoo! (founded 1994) and Altavista (founded 1995) were the respective industry leaders. By August 2001, the directory model had begun to give way to search engines, tracking the rise of Google (founded 1998), which had developed new approaches to relevancy ranking. Directory features, while still commonly available, became after-thoughts to search engines.

Database size, which had been a significant marketing feature through the early 2000s, was similarly displaced by emphasis on relevancy ranking, the methods by which search engines attempt to sort the best results first. Relevancy ranking first became a major issue circa 1996, when it became apparent that it was impractical to review full lists of results. Consequently, algorithms for relevancy ranking have continuously improved. Google’s PageRank method for ordering the results has received the most press, but all major search engines continually refine their ranking methodologies with a view toward improving the ordering of results.

As of 2006, search engine rankings are more important than ever, so much so that an industry has developed (“search engine optimizers”, or “SEO”) to help web-developers improve their search ranking, and an entire body of case law has developed around matters that affect search engine rankings, such as use of trademarks in metatags. The sale of search rankings by some search engines has also created controversy among librarians and consumer advocates.

On June 3, 2009, Microsoft launched its new search engine, Bing.

The following month Microsoft and Yahoo! announced a deal in which Bing would power Yahoo! Search.

File sharing

Peer-to-peer file sharing and Timeline of file sharing

Resource or file sharing has been an important activity on computer networks from well before the Internet was established and was supported in a variety of ways including bulletin board systems (1978), Usenet (1980), Kermit (1981), and many others. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) for use on the Internet was standardized in 1985 and is still in use today.

A variety of tools were developed to aid the use of FTP by helping users discover files they might want to transfer, including the Wide Area Information Server (WAIS) in 1991, Gopher in 1991, Archie in 1991, Veronica in 1992, Jughead in 1993, Internet Relay Chat (IRC) in 1988, and eventually the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1991 with Web directories and Web search engines.

In 1999, Napster became the first peer-to-peer file sharing system.

Napster used a central server for indexing and peer discovery, but the storage and transfer of files was decentralized. A variety of peer-to-peer file sharing programs and services with different levels of decentralization and anonymity followed, including: Gnutella, eDonkey2000, and Freenet in 2000, FastTrack, Kazaa, Limewire, and BitTorrent in 2001, and Poisoned in 2003.

All of these tools are general purpose and can be used to share a wide variety of content, but sharing of music files, software, and later movies and videos are major uses. While some of this sharing is legal, large portions are not. Lawsuits and other legal actions caused Napster in 2001, eDonkey2000 in 2005, Kazza in 2006, and Limewire in 2010 to shut down or refocus their efforts.

The Pirate Bay, founded in Sweden in 2003, continues despite a trial and appeal in 2009 and 2010 that resulted in jail terms and large fines for several of its founders.

File sharing remains contentious and controversial with charges of theft of intellectual property on the one hand and charges of censorship on the other.

Dot-com bubble

Suddenly the low price of reaching millions worldwide, and the possibility of selling to or hearing from those people at the same moment when they were reached, promised to overturn established business dogma in advertising, mail-order sales, customer relationship management, and many more areas. The web was a new killer app—it could bring together unrelated buyers and sellers in seamless and low-cost ways. Entrepreneurs around the world developed new business models, and ran to their nearest venture capitalist. While some of the new entrepreneurs had experience in business and economics, the majority were simply people with ideas, and did not manage the capital influx prudently. Additionally, many dot-com business plans were predicated on the assumption that by using the Internet, they would bypass the distribution channels of existing businesses and therefore not have to compete with them; when the established businesses with strong existing brands developed their own Internet presence, these hopes were shattered, and the newcomers were left attempting to break into markets dominated by larger, more established businesses. Many did not have the ability to do so.

The dot-com bubble burst in March 2000, with the technology heavy NASDAQ Composite index peaking at 5,048.62 on March 10 (5,132.52 intraday), more than double its value just a year before. By 2001, the bubble’s deflation was running full speed. A majority of the dot-coms had ceased trading, after having burnt through their venture capital and IPO capital, often without ever making a profit. But despite this, the Internet continues to grow, driven by commerce, ever greater amounts of online information and knowledge and social networking.

Mobile phones and the Internet

See also: Mobile Web

The first mobile phone with Internet connectivity was the Nokia 9000 Communicator, launched in Finland in 1996. The viability of Internet services access on mobile phones was limited until prices came down from that model and network providers started to develop systems and services conveniently accessible on phones.

NTT DoCoMo in Japan launched the first mobile Internet service, i-mode, in 1999 and this is considered the birth of the mobile phone Internet services. In 2001, the mobile phone email system by Research in Motion for their BlackBerry product was launched in America. To make efficient use of the small screen and tiny keypad and one-handed operation typical of mobile phones, a specific document and networking model was created for mobile devices, the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). Most mobile device Internet services operate using WAP. The growth of mobile phone services was initially a primarily Asian phenomenon with Japan, South Korea and Taiwan all soon finding the majority of their Internet users accessing resources by phone rather than by PC.

Developing countries followed, with India, South Africa, Kenya, Philippines, and Pakistan all reporting that the majority of their domestic users accessed the Internet from a mobile phone rather than a PC. The European and North American use of the Internet was influenced by a large installed base of personal computers, and the growth of mobile phone Internet access was more gradual, but had reached national penetration levels of 20–30% in most Western countries.

The cross-over occurred in 2008, when more Internet access devices were mobile phones than personal computers. In many parts of the developing world, the ratio is as much as 10 mobile phone users to one PC user.

Online population forecast

See also: Global Internet usage

Internet users per 100 inhabitants

Source: International Telecommunications Union.

A study conducted by Jupiter Research anticipates that a 38 percent increase in the number of people with online access will mean that, by 2011, 22 percent of the Earth’s population will surf the Internet regularly. The report says 1.1 billion people have regular Web access. For the study, Jupiter Research defined online users as people who regularly access the Internet from dedicated Internet-access devices, which exclude cellular telephones.

Historiography

Some concerns have been raised over the historiography of the Internet’s development. The process of digitization represents a twofold challenge both for historiography in general and, in particular, for historical communication research.

Specifically that it is hard to find documentation of much of the Internet’s development, for several reasons, including a lack of centralized documentation for much of the early developments that led to the Internet. “The Arpanet period is somewhat well documented because the corporation in charge – BBN – left a physical record. Moving into the NSFNET era, it became an extraordinarily decentralized process. The record exists in people’s basements, in closets.  So much of what happened was done verbally and on the basis of individual trust.”—Doug Gale (2007)

The Information on the Author Social Entrepreneur and Founder of the ACO ~Ascension Center Organization and Ascension Universal Life Church for ET Spirits…

Theresa J. Thurmond Morris

Bio

Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris is an Author/Entrepreneur. TJ specializes in paranormal/super natural phenomenon. TJ was a professional consultant and expert witness on legal investigations and has prior military and government service in the USA 1980-1993. Theresa’s family knows her as Jan and professionally she uses her initials TJ. TJ has written several paranormal books including Ascension Age 2012 & Beyond, Alien UFO Story by TJ, Avatar Oracle Xeno Guide, Roswell Connection, Roswell UFO Encounters, UFOS & Extraterrestrials, and Uplifting the Soul. All books are in print available. TJ shares her life with TJ Morris & Friends and is an Ambassador of Goodwill with American Culture International Relations and ACIR. Theresa shares UNESCO with Art, Culture, Education, Science, Technology, History, Math, Engineering, and Folklife Interest. TJ is now a spiritual life coach and Guide with her own esoteric metaphysical view of life. TJ believes we are all her to share our spiritual paths with others while we teach of other dimensions we all share. Life is a journey and not a destination and shares we are all the author of our own life story. TJ has had extraordinary life experiences including that as an ET Contactee, Out of Body, and Near Death Experiences which allowed her to question life and how our minds work with our soul’s essence.

TJ is devoting her life to the research of how the mind works in relation to the extraterrestrials who visit her in person and through what we call extra-sensory-perception as ESP. There are nuclear physicists working on the same energy and education that TJ has to offer for future discoveries about our involvement with ET.

TJ has had various sightings in AL, AZ, CA, CO, FL, GA, HI, IL, KY,LA, NV,NY, TX and cross country while over the road. TJ now has had contact and experiences where she now lives in KY. TJ has been in constant contact since a child, teen, adult, and now in her later years. TJ now shares her experiences to assist others who are learning to live with UFO sightings and expanding awareness that alien civilizations exist. Tj believes in the Ascension Centered Enlightened Beings in us all. TJ is now happy to be a writer and shares her metaphysical esoteric spiritual point of view through her books. TJ is also a book doctor and editor for over 9 authors and TJ contributes as a syndicated journalist to various websites, blogs, links and rss feeds. TJ’s salutation is Love and Light and believes we are all to share in life together to better ourselves as essence while gaining wisdom. TJ’s books are available on Amazon.com. TJ can be reached at Lulu.com and on her personal websites which can be Googled by her various name and initials for her organizations.

TJ MORRIS tm ACIR sm – WEBSITES

PsychicSouls.Info, TJMorrispsychic.NET

 There is Theresa’s ACIR.US, AmericanNewsMagazine.com, Anewnews.com, AscensionCenter.org, Etspirit.org, OhioCountyKentucky.net, and PsychicSouls.Info. SocialParanormal.com, TJMorris.ORG, Theresa Morris.NET, TJMorris.US, TJMorrisPublishing.US, TJMorrisPsychic.net

Email her at Theresa@PsychicSouls.info, MsTJMorris@aol.com, or Twitter.com/TJTM and Facebook.com/TheresaMorris. If you are interested in becoming a MEMBER of our ET UFO Community which is now represented through affiliation with TJ Morris & Friends, please see our WEBSITES – There are ways to join them in WordPress. We use apache language.

 All websites are paid for and sponsored by TJ herself. TJ is a Patroness of the Arts, Culture, Education, Science, Technology, Folklife (Archaeology) and History.

TJ is a natural born leader which is so noted in astrology as she is a Capricorn with Aquarius rising in her Astrological Chart. TJ is believes in living a balanced ascension centered enlightened life as a spiritual intellectual and shares her essence and energy and sometimes funding and creations with those who are in alignment with her own endorsements and beliefs as a patron and leader in the discoveries of the future minds of the world. TJ has been associated with many famous people in her time on earth and began on television at age of 3 years and while in grade school was on TV weekly. She is an extrovert to some and believed to be an introvert to others. TJ enjoys psychic science and neuro science and shares brain training and spiritual training as part of being a well-balanced humanoid in body-mind-spirit in the birth-life-death experience which is her faith. TJ is not a religious person but is considered an Avatar Ascension Master having master all 33 Ancient Mystery School levels including surviving life after death in this lifetime not only as an experienced believer in reincarnation with this being her ninth and final return to this planet. TJ believes that alien civilizations exist and says this is her religion if anyone bothers to ask her religion she is a declared Ascension Age Avatar Master Minister of the Shamanic Healing Arts. TJ believes in creative design and reincarnation for the soul.

TJ Morris ET Radio Think Tank –ACO Culture Club

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Education, Degrees, Studies, Location: _______________________________________________________

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List any research you have participated in and at what level: ____________________________________

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What Changes would you like to see in your local city, country, state, province and the world?

City or Town: __________________________________________________________________________

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What are your best attributes that will help insure team success in accomplishing Think Tank goals with the ACO and ACE Metaphysical Institute?

That is set by yourself and members of your group: _________________________________________

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Are you willing or able to set up an Online Think Tank locally or in a specific field of endeavor or to become a Team Project Manager (please list and describe)? Interested in the ACO as a Spiritual Being or only the ACE Metaphysical Institute? One can volunteer for both. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

In the spirit of full-disclosure, please tell us anything else that you feel we should know. The good, bad and ugly, so that we know upfront: _________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Please tell us why we should choose you for our Online Think Tank and tell us of your commitment level and examples of perseverance in your life: _____________________________________________

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 You hereby certify that this is the whole truth, and do so under the penalty of perjury:

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Theresa J Morris

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Cyberspace Internet Law Progress Report including a link to the Core International Human Rights Treaties

HUMAN PROGRESS REPORT

(Updated to include Internet Law as of 2-16- 2014)

Addendum: Universal Human Rights PDF – Link:

TJ Morris ACO Theresa J Morris Brand Logo

TJ Morris ACO
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http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/CoreInternationalHumanRightsTreaties_en.pdf

Interesting lawful Information Distinct from Right TruthTJMorris ACIR ACO

Journalistic free information versus individuals selling information for gain

Edward Snowden Poster Boy for Change in Cyberspace Data Gathering Content

By Theresa J Thurmond MorrisACE+FOLKLIFE+LOGO

Terrified Business Writing for Hire about Could-Should-Would versus Experiencing-Knowing-Sharing

When is it right for a human being to share what one knows to be their own experiences as in knowing and sharing their truth?

I have contemplated this feeling of experiencing-knowing-sharing versus could-should-would inside my very own soul on many occasions when it comes to addressing the public as a freelance journalist, blogger, web writer. Imparticular in the world of which I am a part in the social paranormal community of cosmology and UFOlogy. We also refer to this as the Alien ET UFO Community.

UFO Disclosure of past histories around the world relating to prior governments collecting data information of downed Flying Saucers, Spacecraft Not of Earth Origin, UFOS and USOS and capture of Aliens, Ets, and Alien Hybrid Sentient Intelligent Beings is all a part of the past, present and future.

We are they whom come and go in our various levels of the evolutionary ladder of rebirth and reincarnation of the humanoid sentient intelligent being species.

As one who has been asked to report on my own opinions and views of one young American 30 year old man born in North Carolina named Edward Snowden, it has been a subject I have only monitored as most people have based on the released information on the Internet in cyberspace.

The topic of Edward Snowden sharing information as a “Whistle Blower” among many of my peers has been one of popular shares on the TJ Morris ET Radio show on Blog Talk Radio.

Revealing the most helpful techniques for sharing opinions, thoughts, and views with regard to a social networking community online is what I am inspired to co-create with my friends.

How we come to speak of topics is a serendipity type of behavior in synchronicity and yet the name Edward Snowden keeps cropping up as a major human being who is a part of the change in the communication exchange of information regarding the whole entire global critical mass mind.

NSA and CIA are two of the acronyms in what is popular in what we call the “Alphabet Soup of the Intelligence Community” online.

I prefer to remain under the spirituality and paranormal genres inside the internet at this time because of my interest in what in the past was not mainstream news. However, this is now changing as the information we exchange inside the cyberspace internet collection of data mining changes.

We are co-creators with the entire working world and leisure world of entertainment inside the internet. We are growing inside the macrocosm of the global brain in cyberspace and we can no longer deny access to that which becomes exposed in various channels outside of the controlled mainstream news by huge corporations who controlled the NEWS MEDIA in the past.

We are all capable of intelligence gathering due to the communication products which have joined us all together around the world.

The fact that Edward Snowden has become the “POSTER BOY FOR CHANGE IN DATA INFORMATION SHARING” is now a known fact in the world.

Whether we like the man or not does not matter since the information of what companies he has worked for in the past such as CIA and NSA has now taken us all including “MAIN STREAM MEDIA” by storm. We who are the outskirts press as freelancers and website owners and bloggers are all now a part of something much more than what was once only controlled by the rich and notorious. Some may even say that those in charge with their power and greed of past products and services is taken aback by our present day power of communication which has been handed over to the critical mass media now available in cyberspace by OPEN SOURCE information which is co-created for free by many who were trained in the technological age of computers. Technology is now a part of who we are, what we are, and what we are doing.

I am including from a free source of information on the Internet an interview with the source listed for my friends to share with their friends on FACEBOOK and other FREE CHANNELS inside CYBERSPACE. This is the way information is now shared and sent to those who in the past more than likely did not care about the details of what makes the world go round in the journalistic world.

Please share this information when and where you can. Thank you. Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris

 

Edward Snowden former NSA of USA Employee a FULL TRANSCRIPT:

Source: http://nextnewsnetwork.com/news/full-video-edward-snowden-on-german-tv-us-media-blackout/

Interviewer: Mr. Snowden, did you sleep well the last couple of nights? Because, I was reading that you asked for a kind of police protection. Are there any threats?

 

Snowden: There are significant threats but I sleep very well. There was an article that came out in an online outlet called BuzzFeed where they interviewed officials from the Pentagon, from the National Security Agency and they gave them anonymity to be able to say what they wanted, and what they told the reporter was that they wanted to murder me. These individuals, and these are acting government officials, they said they would be happy, they would love to put a bullet in my head, to poison me as I was returning from the grocery store, and have me die in the shower.

 

Interviewer: But, fortunately, you are still alive with us.

 

Snowden: Right, but I’m still alive, and I don’t lose sleep because I’ve done what I feel I needed to do. It was the right thing to do. And, I’m not going to be afraid.

 

Interviewer: “The greatest fear I have,” and I quote you, “regarding these disclosures is nothing will change.” That was one of your greatest concerns at the time, but in the meantime there is a vivid discussion about the situation with the NSA. Not only in America but also in Germany and in Brazil, and President Obama was forced to go public and to justify what the NSA was doing on legal grounds.

 

Snowden: What we saw initially in response to the revelations was sort of a circling of the wagons of government around the National Security Agency. Instead of circling around the public and protecting their rights, the political class circled around the security state and protected their rights. What’s interesting is, though that was the initially response, since then we’ve seen a softening. We’ve seen the President acknowledge that when he first said “we’ve drawn the right balance, there are no abuses,” we’ve seen him and his officials admit that there have been abuses. There have been thousands of violations of the National Security Agency and other agencies, authorities, every single year.

 

Interviewer: Is the speech of Obama recently the beginning of a serious regulation?

 

Snowden: It was clear from the President’s speech that he wanted to make minor changes to preserve authorities that we don’t need. The President created a review board from officials that were personal friends, from national security insiders, former Deputy of the CIA, people who had every incentive to be soft on these programs and to see them in the best possible light. But what they found was that these programs have no value, they’ve never stopped a terrorist attack in the United States, and they have marginal utility at best for other things. The only thing that the Section 215 phone meta-data program, actually it’s a broader meta-data program of bulk collection, bulk collection means mass surveillance, program was in stopping or detecting a $8,500 wire transfer from a cab driver in California. And, it’s this kind of review, where insiders go “we don’t need these programs; these programs don’t make us safe. They take a tremendous amount of resources to run, and they offer us no value.” They go “we can modify these.” The National Security agency operates under the President’s executive authority alone. He can end, or modify, or direct a change in their policies at any time.

 

Interviewer: For the first time President Obama did concede that the NSA collects and stores trillions of data.

 

Snowden: Every time you pick up the phone, dial a number, write an email, make a purchase, travel on the bus carrying a cell phone, swipe a card somewhere, you leave a trace. And, the government has decided that it’s a good idea to collect it all. Everything. Even if you’ve never been suspected of any crime. Traditionally the government would identify a suspect, they would go to a judge, and they would say we suspect he’s committed this crime, they would get a warrant and then they would be able to use the totality of their powers in pursuit of the investigation. Nowadays what we see is they want to apply the totality of their powers in advance, prior to an investigation.

 

Interviewer: You started this debate. Edward Snowden is, in the meantime, a household name for the whistleblower in the age of the internet. You were working until last summer for the NSA, and during this time you collected, secretly, thousands of confidential documents. What was the decisive moment, or was there a long period of time, or something happening? Why did you do this?

 

Snowden: I would say sort of the breaking point is seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, directly lie under oath to Congress. There’s no saving an intelligence community that believes it can lie to the public and the legislators who need to be able to trust it and regulate its actions. Seeing that, for me, really meant for me there was no going back. Beyond that, it was the creeping realization that no one else was going to do this. The public had a right to know about these programs. The public had a right to know that which the government is doing in its name, and that which the government is doing against the public, but neither of these things we were allowed to discuss, we were allowed no, even the wider body of our elected representatives were prohibited from knowing or discussing these programs, and that’s a dangerous thing. The only review we had was from a secret court, the FISA Court, which is a sort of rubber stamp authority.

 

When you are on the inside and you go into work every day and you sit down at the desk and you realize the power you have, you can wiretap the President of the United States, you can wiretap a Federal Judge, and, if you do it carefully no one will ever know because the only way the NSA discovers abuses are from self-reporting.

 

Interviewer: We’re not talking only of the NSA as far as this is concerned. There is a multilateral agreement for cooperation among the services and this alliance of intelligence operations is known as The Five Eyes. What agencies and countries belong to this alliance, and what is its purpose?

 

Snowden: The Five Eyes alliance is sort of an artifact of the post-World War II era where the Anglophone countries are the major powers banded together to sort of cooperate and share the costs of intelligence gathering infrastructure.

 

So we have the UK’s GCHQ, we have the US NSA, we have Canada’s C-Sec, we have the Australian Signals Intelligence Directorate and we have New Zealand’s DSD. What the result of this was, over decades and decades, what sort of a supra-national intelligence organization that doesn’t answer to the laws of its own countries.

 

Interviewer: In many countries, as in America too, the agencies like the NSA are not allowed to spy within their own borders on their own people. So, the Brits for example, they can spy on everybody but the Brits. But, the NSA can conduct surveillance in England. So, in the very end they could exchange their data and it would be, they would be, strictly following the law.

 

Snowden: If you ask the governments about this directly they would deny it and point to policy agreements between the members of the Five Eyes saying that they won’t spy on each other’s citizens. But, there are a couple of key points there. One is that the way they define spying is not the collection of data. The GCHQ is collecting an incredible amount of data on British citizens, just as the National Security Agency is gathering an enormous amount of data on US citizens. What they are saying is that they will not then target people within that data. They won’t look for UK citizens or British citizens. In addition, the policy agreements between them that say British won’t target US citizens, US won’t target British citizens, are not legally binding. The actual memorandums of agreement state specifically on that that they are not intended to put a legal restriction on any government. Their policy agreements that can be deviated from or broken at any time. So if they want to spy on a British citizen, they can spy on a British citizen, and then they can even share that data with the British government that is itself forbidden from spying on UK citizens. So there is a sort of a trading dynamic there, but it’s not, it’s not open, it’s more of a nudge and wink. And, beyond that, the key is to remember the surveillance and the abuse doesn’t occur when people look at the data, it occurs when people gather the data in the first place.

 

Interviewer: How narrow is the cooperation of the German Secret Service BND with the NSA and the Five Eyes?

 

Snowden: I would describe it as intimate. As a matter of fact, the first way I described it in our written interview, was that the German Services and the US Services are in bed together. They not only share information, the reporting of results from intelligence, but they actually share the tools and the infrastructure. They work together against joint targets in services. And, there’s a lot of danger in this. One of the major programs that face abuse in the National Security Agency is what’s called “XKeyscore.” It’s a front end search engine that allows them to look through all of the records they collect worldwide every day.

 

Interviewer: What could you do if you would sit so to speak in their place with this kind of instrument?

 

Snowden: You could read anyone’s email in the world. Anybody you got an email address for, any website you can watch traffic to and from it, any computer that an individual sits at, you can watch it, any laptop that you’re tracking, you can follow it as it moves from place to place throughout the world. It’s a one stop shop for access to the NSA’s information. And what’s more, you can tag individuals using “XKeyscore.” Where, let’s say I saw you once and I thought what you were doing was interesting, or you just have access that’s interesting to me. Let’s say you work at a major German corporation, and I want access to that network. I can track your username on a website, on a form somewhere, I can track your real name, I can track associations with your friends, and I can build what’s called a fingerprint, which is network activity unique to you, which means anywhere you go in the world, anywhere you try to sort of hide your online presence, hide your identity, the NSA can find you. And, anyone who’s allowed to use this, or who the NSA shares their software with, can do the same thing. Germany is one of the countries that have access to “XKeyscore.”

 

Interviewer: This sounds rather frightening. The question is, does the BND deliver data of Germans to the NSA?

 

Snowden: Whether the BND does it directly, or knowingly, the NSA gets German data. Whether it’s provided, I can’t speak to until it’s been reported, because it would be classified. And, I prefer that journalists make the distinctions, and the decisions, about what is public interest and what should be published. However, it’s no secret that every country in the world has the data of their citizens in the NSA. Millions and millions and millions of data connections, from Germans going about their daily lives, talking on their cell phones, sending SMS messages, visiting websites, buying things online, all of this ends up at the NSA. And, it’s reasonable to suspect that the BND may be aware of it in some capacity. Now, whether or not they actively provide the information, I should not say.

 

Interviewer: The BND basically argues if we do this, we do this accidentally actually, and our filter didn’t work.

 

Snowden: Right. So, the kind of things that they’re discussing there are two things. They’re talking about filtering of ingest, which means when the NSA puts a secret server in a German telecommunications provider, or they hack a German router and they divert the traffic in a manner that lets them search through things, they’re saying “if I see what I think is a German talking to another German I’ll drop it.” But, how do you know? You could say “well, these people are speaking the German language, this IP address seems to be from a German company to another German company,” but that’s not accurate, and they wouldn’t dump all of that traffic because they’ll get people who are targets of interest, who are actively in Germany using German communications. So, realistically, what’s happening is when they say “there’s no spying on Germans,” they don’t mean that German data isn’t being gathered, they don’t mean that records aren’t being taken or stolen. What they mean is that they’re not intentionally searching for German citizens. And, that’s sort of a fingers crossed behind the back promise, it’s not reliable.

 

Interviewer: What about other European countries, like Norway and Sweden for example, because we have a lot of, I think, underwater cables going through the Baltic Sea.

 

Snowden: So, this is sort of an expansion of the same idea. If the NSA isn’t collecting information on German citizens in Germany, are they as soon as it leaves German borders? And, the answer is “yes.” Any single communication that transits the internet, the NSA may intercept at multiple points. They might see it in Germany, they might see it in Sweden, they might see it in Norway or Finland, they might see it in Britain, and they might see it in the United States. Any single one of these places that a German communication crosses; it’ll be ingested and added to the database.

 

Interviewer: So, let’s come to our southern European neighbors then. What about Italy? What about France? What about Spain?

 

Snowden: It’s the same deal worldwide.

 

Interviewer: Does the NSA spy on Siemens? On Mercedes? On other successful German companies, for example, to prevail, to have the advantage of knowing what is going on in a scientific and economic world?

 

Snowden: I don’t want to preempt the editorial decisions of journalists.

 

Interviewer: Ok.

 

Snowden: But, what I will say is there’s no question that the US is engaged in economic spying. If there’s information at Siemens that they think would be beneficial to the national interests, not the national security of the United States, they’ll go after that information, and they’ll take it.

 

Interviewer: There is this old saying “you do whatever you can do.” So, the NSA is doing whatever is technically possible.

 

Snowden: This is something that the President touched on last year, where he said that just because we can do something, and this was in relation to tapping Angela Merkel’s phone. Just because we can do something, doesn’t mean that we should. And, that’s exactly what’s happened. The technological capabilities that have been provided, because of sort of weak security standards in internet protocols and cellular communications networks, have meant that intelligence services can create systems that see everything.

 

Interviewer: Nothing annoyed the German government more than the fact that the NSA taped the private phone of the German Chancellor Merkel over the last 10 years, obviously. Suddenly this invisible surveillance was connected with a known face and was not connected with a kind of watery, shady terrorist background. Obama now promised to stop snooping on Merkel, which raises the question “did the NSA tape already previous governments, including the previous chancellors, and when did they do that? And, how long did they do this for?”

 

Snowden: This is a particularly difficult question for me to answer, because there’s information that I very strongly believe is in the public interest. However, as I’ve said before, I prefer for journalists to make those decisions in advance, review the material themselves, and decide whether or not the public value of this information outweighs the sort of reputational cost to the officials that ordered the surveillance. What I can say is we know Angela Merkel was monitored by the National Security Agency. The question is how reasonable is it to assume that she is the only German official that was monitored? How reasonable is it to believe that she’s the only prominent German face who the National Security Agency was watching? I would suggest it seems unreasonable that if anyone was concerned about the intentions of German leadership, that they would only watch Merkel and not her aides, not other prominent officials, not heads of ministries, or even local government officials.

 

Interviewer: How does a young man from Elizabeth City in North Carolina, 30 years old, get in such a position in such a sensitive area?

 

Snowden: That’s a very difficult question to answer. In general, I would say it highlights the dangers of privatizing government functions. I worked previously as an actual staff officer, a government employee for the Central Intelligence Agency, but I’ve also served much more frequently as a contractor in a private capacity. What that means is, you have private for-profit companies doing inherently governmental work, like targeted espionage, surveillance, compromising foreign systems. And, anyone who has the skills, who can convince a private company that they have the qualifications to do so, will be empowered by the government to do that, and there’s very little oversight. There’s very little review.

 

Interviewer: Have you been one of these classical computer kids sitting red eyed during the nights in the age of 12, 15, and your father was knocking on your door and saying “switch off the light, it’s too late now?” Did you get your computer skills from that side? Or, when did you get your first computer?

 

Snowden: (laughter) Right, right. I definitely have had a, shall we say, a deep informal education in computers and electronic technology. They’ve always been fascinating and interesting to me. (laughter) The characterization of having your parents telling you to go to bed, I would say is fair.

 

Interviewer: If one looks to the little public data of your life, one discovers that you, obviously, wanted to join in May 2004, the Special Forces to fight in Iraq. What did motivate you at the time? You know, Special Forces, looking at you in the very moment, means grim fighting, and it means probably killing. And, did you ever get to Iraq?

 

Snowden: No, I didn’t get to Iraq. One of the interesting things about the Special Forces are that they’re not actually intended for direct combat. They’re what’s referred to as “a force multiplier.” They’re inserted behind enemy lines. It’s a squad that has a number of different specialties in it, and they teach and enable the local population to resist, or to support, US forces in a way that allows the local population a chance to help determine their own destiny. And, I felt that was an inherently noble thing at the time. In hindsight, some of the reasons that we went into Iraq were not well founded. And, I think did a disservice to everyone involved.

 

Interviewer: What happened to your adventure then? Did you stay long with them? Or, what happened to you?

 

Snowden: No, I broke my legs when I was in training and was discharged.

 

Interviewer: So it was a short adventure in other words?

 

Snowden: It was a short adventure.

 

Interviewer: In 2007 the CIA stationed you with a diplomatic cover in Geneva, in Switzerland. Why did you join the CIA by the way?

 

Snowden: I don’t think I can actually answer that one.

 

Interviewer: OK, if it’s what you have been doing there, forget it. But why did you join the CIA?

 

Snowden: In many ways I think it’s a continuation of trying to do everything I could to prosecute the public good in the most effective way. And, it’s in line with the rest of my government service where I tried to use my technical skills in the most difficult positions I could find in the world, and the CIA offered that.

 

Interviewer: If we go back, Special Forces, CIA, NSA, it’s not actually in the description of a human rights activist, or somebody who becomes a whistleblower after this. What happens to you?

 

Snowden: I think it tells a story, and that’s, no matter how deeply an individual is embedded in the government, no matter how faithful to the government they are, no matter how strongly they believe in the causes of their government, as I did during the Iraq war, people can learn, people can discover the line between appropriate government behavior and actual wrongdoing. And, I think it became clear to me that that line had been crossed.

 

Interviewer: You worked for the NSA through a private contractor with the name Booze Allen Hamilton, one of the big ones in the business. What is the advantage for the US Government, or the CIA, to work through a private contractor, to outsource a central government function?

 

Snowden: The contracting culture of the national security community in the United States is a complex topic. It’s driven by a number of interests between primarily limiting the number of direct government employees at the same time as keeping lobbying groups in Congress, typically from very well-funded businesses such as Booze Allen Hamilton. The problem there is you end up in a situation where government policies are being influenced by private corporations who have interests that are completely divorced from the public good in mind. The result of that is what we saw at Booze Allen Hamilton, where you have private individuals who have access to, what the government alleges were millions and millions of records that they could walk out the door with at any time with no accountability, no oversight, no auditing, the government didn’t even know they were gone.

 

Interviewer: At the very end you ended up in Russia. Many of the intelligence communities’ suspect you made a deal, classified material for Asylum here in Russia.

 

Snowden: The Chief of the Task Force investigating me, as recently as December, said that their investigation had turned up no evidence, or indications at all, that I had any outside help, or contact, or had made a deal of any kind to accomplish my mission. I worked alone. I didn’t need anybody’s help. I don’t have any ties to foreign governments. I’m not a spy for Russia, or China, or any other country for that matter. If I am a traitor, who did I betray? I gave all of my information to the American public, to American journalists, who are reporting on American issues. If they see that as treason, I think people really need to consider who do they think they’re working for. The public is supposed to be their boss, not their enemy. Beyond that, as far as my personal safety, I’ll never be fully safe until these systems have changed.

 

Interviewer: After your revelations, none of the European countries really offered you asylum. Where did you apply in Europe for asylum?

 

Snowden: I can’t remember the list of countries with any specificity because there were many of them. But, France, Germany were definitely in there, as was the UK. A number of European countries, all of whom, unfortunately, felt that doing the right thing was less important than supporting US political concerns.

 

Interviewer: One reaction to the NSA snooping is in the very moment that countries like Germany are thinking to create national internets, an attempt to force internet companies to keep their data in their own country. Does this work?

 

Snowden: It’s not gonna stop the NSA. Let’s put it that way. The NSA goes where the data is. If the NSA can pull text messages out of telecommunication networks in China, they can probably manage to get Facebook messages out of Germany. Ultimately, the solution to that is not to try to stick everything in a walled garden, although that does raise the level of sophistication and complexity of taking the information. It’s also much better simply to secure the information internationally against everyone, rather than playing ‘let’s move the data.’ Moving the data isn’t fixing the problem. Securing the data is the problem.

 

Interviewer: President Obama, in the very moment, obviously doesn’t care too much about the message of the leak. And, together with the NSA, they do care very much more about catching the messenger in that context. Obama asked the Russian president several times to extradite you. But Putin did not. It looks that you will stay to the rest of your life, probably in Russia. How do you feel about Russia in that context, and is there a solution to this problem.

 

Snowden: I think it’s becoming increasingly clear that these leaks didn’t cause harm, in fact, they served the public good. Because of that, I think it will be very difficult to maintain sort of an ongoing campaign of persecution against someone who the public agrees serve the public interest.

 

Interviewer: The New York Times wrote a very long comment, and demanded clemency for you. The headline “Edward Snowden Whistleblower,” and I quote from that, “the public learned in great detail how the agency has extended its mandate and abused its authority.” And, the New York Times closes, “President Obama should tell his aides to begin finding a way to end Mr. Snowden’s vilification, and give him an incentive to return home.” Did you get a call in between from the White House?

 

Snowden: I’ve never received a call from the White House, and I am not waiting by the phone. But, I would welcome the opportunity to talk about how we can bring this to a conclusion that serves the interest of all parties. I think it’s clear there are times where what is lawful is distinct from what is rightful. There are times throughout history and it doesn’t take long for, either an American, or a German, to think about times in the history of their country where the law provided the government to do things which were not right.

 

Interviewer: President Obama, obviously, is in the very moment not quite convinced of that, because he said to you are charged with three felonies. And, I quote, “if you, Edward Snowden, believe in what you did, you should go back to America, appear before the court with a lawyer and make your case.” Is this the solution?

 

Snowden: It’s interesting because he mentions three felonies. What he doesn’t say is that the crimes that he’s charged me with are crimes that don’t allow me to make my case. They don’t allow me to defend myself in an open court to the public and convince a jury that what I did was to their benefit. The Espionage Act was never intended, it’s from 1918, it was never intended to prosecute journalistic sources, people who are informing the newspapers about information that’s of public interest. It was intended for people who are selling documents in secret to foreign governments, who are bombing bridges, who are sabotaging communications, not people who are serving the public good. So, it’s, I would say, illustrative that the president would choose to say someone should face the music when he knows the music is a show trial.

TJ Morris ET Radio –Off World Beings Monitoring HUMAN PROGRESS

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CYBERSPACE LAWS OF THE INTERNET

Legal aspects of computing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  (Redirected from Internet Law)

Part of a series on

Legal aspects of computing

File sharing

Legal aspects of hyperlinking and framing

Spamming

The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (February 2012)

Legal aspects of computing are related to the overlapping areas of law and computing.

The first one, historically, was information technology law (or IT law). (“IT law” should not be confused with the IT aspects of law itself, although there are overlapping issues.) IT law consists of the law (statutes, regulations, and caselaw) which governs the digital dissemination of both (digitalized) information and software itself (see history of free and open-source software) and legal aspects of information technology more broadly. IT law covers mainly the digital information (including information security and electronic commerce) aspects and it has been described as “paper laws” for a “paperless environment”.

Cyberlaw or Internet law is a term that encapsulates the legal issues related to use of the Internet. It is less a distinct field of law than intellectual property or contract law, as it is a domain covering many areas of law and regulation. Some leading topics include internet access and usage, privacy, freedom of expression, and jurisdiction.

“Computer law” is a third term which tends to relate to issues including both Internet law and the patent and copyright aspects of computer technology and software.

Contents 

1 Areas of law

2 Jurisdiction

3 Internet Law

3.1 Net neutrality

3.2 Free speech on the Internet

3.3 Internet censorship

4 The Creation of Privacy in U.S. Internet Law

4.1 Warren and Brandeis

4.2 Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test and emerging technology

4.3 Privacy Act of 1974

4.4 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978

4.5 (1986) Electronic Communication Privacy Act

4.6 (1994) Driver’s Privacy Protection Act

4.7 (1999) Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

4.8 (2002) Homeland Security Act

4.9 (2004) Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

5 Legal enactments – examples

5.1 Electronic signature laws

5.2 Information technology law

5.3 Information Technology Guidelines

6 Enforcement agencies

6.1 United States Federal Agencies

6.2 India

7 Information Technology Lawyer

8 Quotations

9 See also

10 Further reading

11 References

12 External links

Areas of law

See also: Software law

There is intellectual property in general, including copyright, rules on fair use, and special rules on copy protection for digital media, and circumvention of such schemes. The area of software patents is controversial, and still evolving in Europe and elsewhere.[1]

The related topics of software licenses, end user license agreements, free software licenses and open-source licenses can involve discussion of product liability, professional liability of individual developers, warranties, contract law, trade secrets and intellectual property.

In various countries, areas of the computing and communication industries are regulated – often strictly – by government bodies.

There are rules on the uses to which computers and computer networks may be put, in particular there are rules on unauthorized access, data privacy and spamming. There are also limits on the use of encryption and of equipment which may be used to defeat copy protection schemes. The export of Hardware and Software between certain states is also controlled.

There are laws governing trade on the Internet, taxation, consumer protection, and advertising.

There are laws on censorship versus freedom of expression, rules on public access to government information, and individual access to information held on them by private bodies. There are laws on what data must be retained for law enforcement, and what may not be gathered or retained, for privacy reasons.

In certain circumstances and jurisdictions, computer communications may be used in evidence, and to establish contracts. New methods of tapping and surveillance made possible by computers have wildly differing rules on how they may be used by law enforcement bodies and as evidence in court.

Computerized voting technology, from polling machines to internet and mobile-phone voting, raise a host of legal issues.

Some states limit access to the Internet, by law as well as by technical means.

Jurisdiction

Issues of jurisdiction and sovereignty have quickly come to the fore in the era of the Internet.

Jurisdiction is an aspect of state sovereignty and it refers to judicial, legislative and administrative competence. Although jurisdiction is an aspect of sovereignty, it is not coextensive with it. The laws of a nation may have extraterritorial impact extending the jurisdiction beyond the sovereign and territorial limits of that nation. This is particularly problematic as the medium of the Internet does not explicitly recognize sovereignty and territorial limitations. There is no uniform, international jurisdictional law of universal application, and such questions are generally a matter of conflict of laws, particularly private international law. An example would be where the contents of a web site are legal in one country and illegal in another. In the absence of a uniform jurisdictional code, legal practitioners are generally left with a conflict of law issue.

Another major problem of cyberlaw lies in whether to treat the Internet as if it were physical space (and thus subject to a given jurisdiction’s laws) or to act as if the Internet is a world unto itself (and therefore free of such restraints). Those who favor the latter view often feel that government should leave the Internet community to self-regulate. John Perry Barlow, for example, has addressed the governments of the world and stated, “Where there are real conflicts, where there are wrongs, we will identify them and address them by our means. We are forming our own Social Contract. This governance will arise according to the conditions of our world, not yours. Our world is different”.[2] A more balanced alternative is the Declaration of Cybersecession: “Human beings possess a mind, which they are absolutely free to inhabit with no legal constraints. Human civilization is developing its own (collective) mind. All we want is to be free to inhabit it with no legal constraints. Since you make sure we cannot harm you, you have no ethical right to intrude our lives. So stop intruding!”[3] Other scholars argue for more of a compromise between the two notions, such as Lawrence Lessig’s argument that “The problem for law is to work out how the norms of the two communities are to apply given that the subject to whom they apply may be in both places at once” (Lessig, Code 190).

With the internationalism of the Internet, jurisdiction is a much more tricky area than before, and courts in different countries have taken various views on whether they have jurisdiction over items published on the Internet, or business agreements entered into over the Internet. This can cover areas from contract law, trading standards and tax, through rules on unauthorized access, data privacy and spamming to more political areas such as freedom of speech, censorship, libel or sedition.

Certainly, the frontier idea that the law does not apply in “Cyberspace” is not true. In fact, conflicting laws from different jurisdictions may apply, simultaneously, to the same event. The Internet does not tend to make geographical and jurisdictional boundaries clear, but Internet users remain in physical jurisdictions and are subject to laws independent of their presence on the Internet.[4] As such, a single transaction may involve the laws of at least three jurisdictions:

the laws of the state/nation in which the user resides,

the laws of the state/nation that apply where the server hosting the transaction is located, and

the laws of the state/nation which apply to the person or business with whom the transaction takes place.

So a user in one of the United States conducting a transaction with another user in Britain through a server in Canada could theoretically be subject to the laws of all three countries as they relate to the transaction at hand.[5]

In practical terms, a user of the Internet is subject to the laws of the state or nation within which he or she goes online. Thus, in the U.S., Jake Baker faced criminal charges for his e-conduct, and numerous users of peer-to-peer file-sharing software were subject to civil lawsuits for copyright infringement. This system runs into conflicts, however, when these suits are international in nature. Simply put, legal conduct in one nation may be decidedly illegal in another. In fact, even different standards concerning the burden of proof in a civil case can cause jurisdictional problems. For example, an American celebrity, claiming to be insulted by an online American magazine, faces a difficult task of winning a lawsuit against that magazine for libel. But if the celebrity has ties, economic or otherwise, to England, he or she can sue for libel in the British court system, where the standard of “libelous speech” is far lower.

Internet governance is a live issue in international fora such as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the role of the current US-based co-ordinating body, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was discussed in the UN-sponsored World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in December 2003

Internet Law

If there are laws that could govern the Internet, then it appears that such laws would be fundamentally different from laws that geographic nations use today. The unique structure of the Internet has raised several judicial concerns. There is a substantial literature and commentary that the Internet is not only “regulable,” but is already subject to substantial law regulations, both public and private, by many parties and at many different levels. Since the Internet defies geographical boundaries, national laws can not apply globally and it has been suggested instead that the Internet can be self-regulated as being its own trans-national “nation”.

Since the Internet law represents a legal paradigm shift, it is still in the process of development.[6]

In their essay “Law and Borders — The Rise of Law in Cyberspace”, David R. Johnson and David G. Post argue that it became necessary for the Internet to govern itself and instead of obeying the laws of a particular country, “Internet citizens” will obey the laws of electronic entities like service providers. Instead of identifying as a physical person, Internet citizens will be known by their usernames or email addresses (or, more recently, by their Facebook accounts).

Leaving aside the most obvious examples of internet censorship in nations like China or Saudi Arabia or Iran (that monitor content), there are four primary modes of regulation of the internet described by Lawrence Lessig in his book, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace:

Law: Standard East Coast Code, and the most self-evident of the four modes of regulation. As the numerous statutes, evolving case law and precedents make clear, many actions on the internet are already subject to conventional legislation (both with regard to transactions conducted on the internet and images posted). Areas like gambling, child pornography, and fraud are regulated in very similar ways online as off-line. While one of the most controversial and unclear areas of evolving laws is the determination of what forum has subject matter jurisdiction over activity (economic and other) conducted on the internet, particularly as cross border transactions affect local jurisdictions, it is certainly clear that substantial portions of internet activity are subject to traditional regulation, and that conduct that is unlawful off-line is presumptively unlawful online, and subject to similar laws and regulations. Scandals with major corporations led to US legislation rethinking corporate governance regulations such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

Architecture: West Coast Code: these mechanisms concern the parameters of how information can and cannot be transmitted across the internet. Everything from internet filtering software (which searches for keywords or specific URLs and blocks them before they can even appear on the computer requesting them), to encryption programs, to the very basic architecture of TCP/IP protocol, falls within this category of regulation. It is arguable that all other modes of regulation either rely on, or are significantly supported by, regulation via West Coast Code.

Norms: As in all other modes of social interaction, conduct is regulated by social norms and conventions in significant ways. While certain activities or kinds of conduct online may not be specifically prohibited by the code architecture of the internet, or expressly prohibited by applicable law, nevertheless these activities or conduct will be invisibly regulated by the inherent standards of the community, in this case the internet “users.” And just as certain patterns of conduct will cause an individual to be ostracized from our real world society, so too certain actions will be censored or self-regulated by the norms of whatever community one chooses to associate with on the internet.

Markets: Closely allied with regulation by virtue of social norms, markets also regulate certain patterns of conduct on the internet. While economic markets will have limited influence over non-commercial portions of the internet, the internet also creates a virtual marketplace for information, and such information affects everything from the comparative valuation of services to the traditional valuation of stocks. In addition, the increase in popularity of the internet as a means for transacting all forms of commercial activity, and as a forum for advertisement, has brought the laws of supply and demand in cyberspace.

Net neutrality

Another major area of interest is net neutrality, which affects the regulation of the infrastructure of the Internet. Though not obvious to most Internet users, every packet of data sent and received by every user on the Internet passes through routers and transmission infrastructure owned by a collection of private and public entities, including telecommunications companies, universities, and governments. This is turning into one of the most critical aspects of cyberlaw and has immediate jurisdictional implications, as laws in force in one jurisdiction have the potential to have dramatic effects in other jurisdictions when host servers or telecommunications companies are affected.

Free speech on the Internet

Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights calls for the protection of free expression in all media.

In comparison to traditional print-based media, the accessibility and relative anonymity of cyber space has torn down traditional barriers between an individual and his or her ability to publish. Any person with an internet connection has the potential to reach an audience of millions with little-to-no distribution costs. Yet this new form of highly accessible authorship in cyber space raises questions and perhaps magnifies legal complexities relating to the freedom and regulation of speech in cyberspace.

These complexities have taken many forms, three notable examples being the Jake Baker incident, in which the limits of obscene Internet postings were at issue, the controversial distribution of the DeCSS code, and Gutnick v Dow Jones, in which libel laws were considered in the context of online publishing. The last example was particularly significant because it epitomized the complexities inherent to applying one country’s laws (nation-specific by definition) to the internet (international by nature). In 2003, Jonathan Zittrain considered this issue in his paper, “Be Careful What You Ask For: Reconciling a Global Internet and Local Law”.[7]

In the UK the case of Keith-Smith v Williams confirmed that existing libel laws applied to internet discussions.[8]

In terms of the tort liability of ISPs and hosts of internet forums, Section 230(c) of the Communications Decency Act may provide immunity in the United States.[9]

Internet censorship

In many countries, speech through cyberspace has proven to be another means of communication which has been regulated by the government. The “Open Net Initiative”,[10] whose mission statement is “to investigate and challenge state filtration and surveillance practices” to “…generate a credible picture of these practices,” has released numerous reports documenting the filtration of internet-speech in various countries. While China has thus far proven to be the most rigorous in its attempts to filter unwanted parts of the internet from its citizens,[11] many other countries – including Singapore, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia – have engaged in similar practices of Internet censorship. In one of the most vivid examples of information control, the Chinese government for a short time transparently forwarded requests to the Google search engine to its own, state-controlled search engines.

These examples of filtration bring to light many underlying questions concerning the freedom of speech. For example, does the government have a legitimate role in limiting access to information? And if so, what forms of regulation are acceptable? For example, some argue that the blocking of “blogspot” and other websites in India failed to reconcile the conflicting interests of speech and expression on the one hand and legitimate government concerns on the other hand.[12]

The Creation of Privacy in U.S. Internet Law

Warren and Brandeis

At the close of the 19th Century, concerns about privacy captivated the general public, and led to the 1890 publication of Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis: “The Right to Privacy”.[13] The vitality of this article can be seen today, when examining the USSC decision of Kyllo v. United States, 533 U.S. 27 (2001) where it is cited by the majority, those in concurrence, and even those in dissent.[14]

The motivation of both authors to write such an article is heavily debated amongst scholars, however, two developments during this time give some insight to the reasons behind it. First, the sensationalistic press and the concurrent rise and use of “yellow journalism” to promote the sale of newspapers in the time following the Civil War brought privacy to the forefront of the public eye. The other reason that brought privacy to the forefront of public concern was the technological development of “instant photography”. This article set the stage for all privacy legislation to follow during the 20 and 21st Centuries.

Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test and emerging technology

In 1967, the United States Supreme Court decision in Katz v United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967) established what is known as the Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test to determine the applicability of the Fourth Amendment in a given situation. It should be noted that the test was not noted by the majority, but instead it was articulated by the concurring opinion of Justice Harlan. Under this test, 1) a person must exhibit an “actual (subjective) expectation of privacy” and 2) “the expectation [must] be one that society is prepared to recognize as ‘reasonable.’”

Privacy Act of 1974

Inspired by the Watergate scandal, the United States Congress enacted the Privacy Act of 1974 just four months after the resignation of then President Richard Nixon. In passing this Act, Congress found that “the privacy of an individual is directly affected by the collection, maintenance, use, and dissemination of personal information by Federal agencies” and that “the increasing use of computers and sophisticated information technology, while essential to the efficient operations of the Government, has greatly magnified the harm to individual privacy that can occur from any collection, maintenance, use, or dissemination of personal information.”

For more information see: Privacy Act of 1974

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978

Codified at 50 U.S.C. §§ 1801-1811, this act establishes standards and procedures for use of electronic surveillance to collect “foreign intelligence” within the United States. §1804(a)(7)(B). FISA overrides the Electronic Communications Privacy Act during investigations when foreign intelligence is “a significant purpose” of said investigation. 50 U.S.C. § 1804(a)(7)(B) and §1823(a)(7)(B). Another interesting result of FISA, is the creation of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC). All FISA orders are reviewed by this special court of federal district judges. The FISC meets in secret, with all proceedings usually also held from both the public eye and those targets of the desired surveillance.

For more information see: Foreign Intelligence Act

(1986) Electronic Communication Privacy Act

The ECPA represents an effort by the United States Congress to modernize federal wiretap law. The ECPA amended Title III (see: Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968) and included two new acts in response to developing computer technology and communication networks. Thus the ECPA in the domestic venue into three parts: 1) Wiretap Act, 2) Stored Communications Act, and 3) The Pen Register Act.

Types of Communication

Wire Communication: Any communication containing the human voice that travels at some point across a wired medium such as radio, satellite or cable.

Oral Communication:

Electronic Communication

The Wiretap Act: For Information See Wiretap Act

The Stored Communications Act: For information see Stored Communications Act

The Pen Register Act: For information see Pen Register Act

(1994) Driver’s Privacy Protection Act

The DPPA was passed in response to states selling motor vehicle records to private industry. These records contained personal information such as name, address, phone number, SSN, medical information, height, weight, gender, eye color, photograph and date of birth. In 1994, Congress passed the Driver’s Privacy Protection (DPPA), 18 U.S.C. §§ 2721-2725, to cease this activity.

For more information see: Driver’s Privacy Protection Act

(1999) Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

-This act authorizes widespread sharing of personal information by financial institutions such as banks, insurers, and investment companies. The GLBA permits sharing of personal information between companies joined together or affiliated as well as those companies unaffiliated. To protect privacy, the act requires a variety of agencies such as the SEC, FTC, etc. to establish “appropriate standards for the financial institutions subject to their jurisdiction” to “insure security and confidentiality of customer records and information” and “protect against unauthorized access” to this information. 15 U.S.C. § 6801

For more information see: Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

(2002) Homeland Security Act

-Passed by Congress in 2002, the Homeland Security Act, 6 U.S.C. § 222, consolidated 22 federal agencies into what is commonly known today as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The HSA, also created a Privacy Office under the DoHS. The Secretary of Homeland Security must “appoint a senior official to assume primary responsibility for privacy policy.” This privacy official’s responsibilities include but are not limited to: ensuring compliance with the Privacy Act of 1974, evaluating “legislative and regulatory proposals involving the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information by the Federal Government”, while also preparing an annual report to Congress.

For more information see: Homeland Security Act

(2004) Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

-This Act mandates that intelligence be “provided in its most shareable form” that the heads of intelligence agencies and federal departments “promote a culture of information sharing.” The IRTPA also sought to establish protection of privacy and civil liberties by setting up a five-member Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board. This Board offers advice to both the President of the United States and the entire executive branch of the Federal Government concerning its actions to ensure that the branch’s information sharing policies are adequately protecting privacy and civil liberties.

For more information see: Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

Legal enactments – examples

The Computer Misuse Act 1990[15] enacted by Great Britain on 29 June 1990, and which came into force on 29 August 1990, is an example of one of the earliest of such legal enactments. This Act was enacted with an express purpose of making “provision for securing computer material against unauthorized access or modification.” Certain major provisions of the Computer Misuse Act 1990 relate to:

“unauthorized access to computer materials”,

“unauthorized access with intent to commit or facilitate the commission of further offences”, and

“unauthorized modification of computer material.”

The impact of the Computer Misuse Act 1990 has been limited and with the adoption of the Council of Europe adopts its Convention on Cyber-Crime, it has been indicated that amending legislation would be introduced in parliamentary session 2004–05 in order to rectify possible gaps in its coverage, which are many.

The CMA 1990 has many weaknesses; the most notable is its inability to cater for, or provide suitable protection against, a host of high tech attacks/crimes which have became more prevalent in the last decade. Certain attacks such as DDOS and BOTNET attacks can not be effectively brought to justice under the CMA. This act has been under review for a number of years. Computer crimes such as electronic theft are usually prosecuted in the UK under the legislation that caters for traditional theft (Theft Act 1968), because the CMA is so ineffective.

A recent example of information technology law is India’s Information Technology Act of 2000 as amended by The Information Technology (amendment) Act of 2008 with The IT Rules of 2011. The Information Technology Act of 2000 was introduced on 9 June 2000. The Information Technology Act of 2000 came into force on 17 October 2000. This Act was amended vide Notification dated 27 October 2009. This Act applies to whole of India, and its provisions also apply to any offence or contravention, committed even outside the territorial jurisdiction of Republic of India, by any person irrespective of his nationality. In order to attract provisions of this Act, such an offence or contravention should involve a computer, computer system, or computer network located in India. The IT Act 2000 provides an extraterritorial applicability to its provisions by virtue of section 1(2) read with section 75.This Act has 90 sections.

India’s The Information Technology Act 2000 has tried to assimilate legal principles available in several such laws (relating to information technology) enacted earlier in several other countries, as also various guidelines pertaining to Information Technology Law. This is a modern legislation with crimes like Hacking, Datatheft, Spreading of Virus, Identity Theft, defmation, pornography, child pornography, cyber terrorism, crimes by companies etc. defined at great length. The IT Rules of 2011 talk about compliance and acts as The Data Protection Law of India. It also has Rules for Intermediaries(ISP’s, Network service providers, cyber cafes etc.).Section 66A deal with crime of sending offensive messages through communication medium which include sms, mms, email,blogs etc .Almost all sections are cognizable in nature and persons so affected can apply for compensation from Adjudicator appointed under Section 46.Appeal from adjudicator lies to Cyber Appellate Tribunal.

Many Asian and Middle Eastern nations use any number of combinations of code-based regulation (one of Lessig’s four methods of net regulation) to block material that their governments have deemed inappropriate for their citizens to view. PRC, Saudi Arabia and Iran are three examples of nations that have achieved high degrees of success in regulating their citizens’ access to the Internet.[11][16]

Electronic signature laws

Australia – Electronic Transactions Act 1999 (Cth) (also note that there is State and Territory mirror legislation)

Costa Rica – Digital Signature Law 8454 (2005)

European Union – Electronic Signature Directive (1999/93/EC)

Mexico – E-Commerce Act [2000]

U.S. – Digital Signature And Electronic Authentication Law

U.S. – Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act

U.S. – Government Paperwork Elimination Act (GPEA)

U.S. – Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)

U.S. – Uniform Electronic Transactions Act – adopted by 46 states

UK – s.7 Electronic Communications Act 2000

Information technology law

Florida Electronic Security Act

Illinois Electronic Commerce Security Act

Texas Penal Code – Computer Crimes Statute

Maine Criminal Code – Computer Crimes

Singapore Electronic Transactions Act

Malaysia Computer Crimes Act

Malaysia Digital Signature Act

UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce

Information Technology Act 2000 of India

Thailand Computer Crimes Act B.E.2550

Information Technology Guidelines

ABA Digital Signature Guidelines

United States Office of Management and Budget

Enforcement agencies

The Information Technology Laws of various countries, and / or their criminal laws generally stipulate enforcement agencies, entrusted with the task of enforcing the legal provisions and requirements.

United States Federal Agencies

Many United States federal agencies oversee the use of information technology. Their regulations are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations of the United States.

Over 25 U.S. federal agencies have regulations concerning the use of digital and electronic signatures.[17]

India

A live example of such an enforcement agency is Cyber Crime Police Station, Bangalore,[18] India’s first exclusive Cyber Crime enforcement agency.

Other examples of such enforcement agencies include:

Cyber Crime Investigation Cell[19] of India’s Mumbai Police.

Cyber Crime Police Station[20] of the state Government of Andhra Pradesh, India. This Police station has jurisdiction over the entire state of Andhra Pradesh, and functions from the Hyderabad city.

In South India, the Crime Branch of Criminal Investigation Department, Tamilnadu police, India, has a Cyber Crime Cell at Chennai.

In East India, Cyber Crime Cells have been set up by the Kolkata Police as well as the Criminal Investigation Department, West Bengal.

Information Technology Lawyer

An information technology attorney is a professional who handles a variety of legal matters related to IT. The attorney gets involved in drafting, negotiating, and interpreting agreements in the areas of software licensing and maintenance, IT consulting, e-commerce, web site hosting and development, and telecommunications agreements, as well as handling dispute resolution and assisting with the client’s Internet domain name portfolio. An information technology attorney works with engineering, IT, and other business units and ensures that customer information gathered by company is collected, stored and used in compliance with privacy policies and applicable laws.

Duties also include providing high quality, specialized and practical advice in business-to-business and business-to-consumer arrangements and advising on issues like IT outsourcing arrangements, software and hardware supply and implementation agreements. An information technology attorney contracts for web site developers and consultants in relation to on-line projects. Provides support and maintains confidentiality/know how agreements. Contracts for Internet service providers and data protection advice. An information technology attorney should have a JD degree or an LL.M degree with admission to the local state bar.

Quotations

“In Cyberspace, the First Amendment is a local ordinance.”

— John Perry Barlow, quoted by Mitchell Kapor in the foreword to The Big Dummy’s Guide to the Internet

“National borders aren’t even speed bumps on the information superhighway.”

— Tim May, signature, from 1996

See also

Berkman Center for Internet & Society

Bernstein v. United States and Junger v. Daley – on free speech protection of software

Computer forensics

Computer crime

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)

Electronic Communications Privacy Act

Export of cryptography

Glossary of legal terms in technology

Software patent debate

Universal v. Reimerdes – test of DMCA

Ouellette v. Viacom International Inc. (DMCA and ADA)

Wassenaar Arrangement

Doe v. 2themart.com Inc. – First Amendment right to speak anonymously

United States v. Ivanov – Applying United States cyber-law to a foreign national operating outside the US

Centers and groups for the study of cyberlaw and related areas

Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School

Centre for Internet and Society, in Bangalore, India.

Institute for Information, Telecommunication and Media Law in Münster, Germany

Institute of Space and Telecommunications Law (IDEST) at University of Paris-Sud, Master’s degree in Space Activities and Telecommunications Law

Master of New Technologies law[21] at Pablo de Olavide University in Seville, Spain

Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law

Stanford Center for Internet and Society, at Stanford Law School

Topics related to cyberlaw

Copyright, especially the Digital Millennium Copyright Act in the United States, and similar laws in other countries

Cyber defamation law

Digital Rights Management

Intellectual property

Internet censorship

Stop Online Piracy Act

Spamming

The Law of Cyber-Space (book)

Conferences related to cyberlaw

State of Play, a conference series put on by the Institute for Information Law & Policy at New York Law School, concerning the intersection of virtual worlds, games and the law.

Further reading

Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, The Future of Ideas, and Free Culture by Lawrence Lessig

Cyber Rights by Mike Godwin

E-Commerce and Internet Law: Treatise with Forms 2d edition, by Ian C. Ballon

References

Computer Law: Drafting and Negotiating Forms and Agreements, by Richard Raysman and Peter Brown. Law Journal Press, 1999–2008. ISBN 978-1-58852-024-1

 Barlow, John P. “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace”.

 “An Introduction to Cybersecession”.

Trout, B. (2007). “Cyber Law: A Legal Arsenal For Online Business”, New York: World Audience, Inc.

Emerging Technologies and the Law: Forms and Analysis, by Richard Raysman, Peter Brown, Jeffrey D. Neuburger and William E. Bandon, III. Law Journal Press, 2002-2008. ISBN 1-58852-107-9

“Law and Borders – The Rise of Law in Cyberspace”. Cli.org. Retrieved 2013-11-05.

 Zittrain, Jonathan (2003). “Be Careful What You Ask For: Reconciling a Global Internet and Local Law”.

Gibson, Owen (March 23, 2006). “Warning to chatroom users after libel award for man labelled a Nazi”. The Guardian.

Myers KS (Fall 2006). “Wikimmunity: Fitting the Communications Decency Act to Wikipedia”. Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 20: 163. SSRN 916529.

 “opennetinitiative.net”. opennetinitiative.net. Retrieved 2012-01-17.

“All Content related to China”. OpenNet Initiative.

Free Speech Implications Of Blocking Blog Posts In India, taken from Aaron Kelly Internet Law Firm, Retrieved December 05, 2011.

Warren & Louis Brandeis, The Right to Privacy , 4 Harv. L. Rev. 193 (1890)

Solove, D.,Schwartz, P.. (2009). Privacy, Information, and Technology. (2nd Ed.). New York, NY: Aspen Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7355-7910-1.

 “[ARCHIVED CONTENT] Internet Crime – The Computer Misuse Act 1990″. Homeoffice.gov.uk. Retrieved 2012-01-17.

“All Content related to Saudi Arabia”. OpenNet Initiative.

“Federal Agency Digital and Electronic Signature Regulations”. Isaacbowman.com. 2009-03-16. Retrieved 2012-01-17.

“cyberpolicebangalore.nic.in”. cyberpolicebangalore.nic.in. Retrieved 2012-01-17.

[1][dead link]

[2][dead link]

“Centro de Estudios de Postgrado de la Universidad Pablo de Olavide”. Upo.es. Retrieved 2012-01-17.

External links

This article’s use of external links may not follow Wikipedia’s policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (November 2013)

Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School

Greplaw is a news and discussion site for legal and computing issues.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation works for individuals’ rights.

Text of the United States’ Security and Freedom through Encryption (SAFE) Act.

The Information Technology Act 2000 as Amended by The IT Act 2008 of India

Cyber Law Android App

US Department of Justice – Cyber crimes

CERT

Global School of Tech Juris Pioneering Cyber Law Institute

Indian Portal on Cyber Law

Computer Crime Research Center

Cybercrime and misuse of ICT-UNESCO

Digital Evidence

Computer Forensics World

“Model Information Technology Contract Terms and Systems Implementation Contracts in Europe”. European Newsletter, June 2006 Lestrade, K.OSt.J., SJDr, Dr. Edward

AHRC Research Centre for Studies in IP and IT Law at Edinburgh Law School

Critical analysis of proposed Information Technology Act, 2000 amendments

The proposed IT Act, 2000 amendments: Boon or bane

Global School of Tech Juris White Paper on Censoring the Indian Cyberspace

Global School of Tech Juris White Paper on Cyber Voyeurism Perverts Dot Com

You Be The Judge

India Articles on Cyber Crime & Cyber Law

Natural Porn Killers – Jayesh and Sunil Thacker (Mid-Day – October 7, 2001)

HC admits cyberporn complaint as PIL (Times of India, July 13, 2001)

Cyberporn panel set up, HC wants minors protected, Sunil Thacker invited as a special invitee (Times of India, September 30, 2001)

indiacensored.com

Cyber Law Complete Information

Articles on Romanian Cyberlaw

Stanford Law School Cyberlaw Clinic

Santa Clara University School of Law Tech LawForum

Cybertelecom: Federal Internet Policy

Internet Library of Law and Court Decisions

Global Cyber Law Database

WorldLII Cyberspace Law

Cyber Law World

Computer Crime Research Center

ASCL Cyber Law Library

Borders on, or border around – the future of the Internet

White Paper on Information technology Act Amendments 2008

Thailand Computer Crimes Act B.E.2550 (2007)

Categories: Computer lawInformation technology

Legal aspects of computing

Source: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  (Redirected from Internet Law)

Part of a series on

Legal aspects of computing

File sharing

Legal aspects of hyperlinking and framing

Spamming

The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (February 2012)

Legal aspects of computing are related to the overlapping areas of law and computing.

The first one, historically, was information technology law (or IT law). (“IT law” should not be confused with the IT aspects of law itself, although there are overlapping issues.) IT law consists of the law (statutes, regulations, and caselaw) which governs the digital dissemination of both (digitalized) information and software itself (see history of free and open-source software) and legal aspects of information technology more broadly. IT law covers mainly the digital information (including information security and electronic commerce) aspects and it has been described as “paper laws” for a “paperless environment”.

Cyberlaw or Internet law is a term that encapsulates the legal issues related to use of the Internet. It is less a distinct field of law than intellectual property or contract law, as it is a domain covering many areas of law and regulation. Some leading topics include internet access and usage, privacy, freedom of expression, and jurisdiction.

“Computer law” is a third term which tends to relate to issues including both Internet law and the patent and copyright aspects of computer technology and software.

Contents 

1 Areas of law

2 Jurisdictions

3 Internet Law

3.1 Net neutrality

3.2 Free speech on the Internet

3.3 Internet censorship

4 The Creation of Privacy in U.S. Internet Law

4.1 Warren and Brandeis

4.2 Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test and emerging technology

4.3 Privacy Act of 1974

4.4 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978

4.5 (1986) Electronic Communication Privacy Act

4.6 (1994) Driver’s Privacy Protection Act

4.7 (1999) Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

4.8 (2002) Homeland Security Act

4.9 (2004) Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

5 Legal enactments – examples

5.1 Electronic signature laws

5.2 Information technology law

5.3 Information Technology Guidelines

6 Enforcement agencies

6.1 United States Federal Agencies

6.2 India

7 Information Technology Lawyer

8 Quotations

9 See also

10 Further reading

11 References

12 External links

Areas of law

See also: Software law

There is intellectual property in general, including copyright, rules on fair use, and special rules on copy protection for digital media, and circumvention of such schemes. The area of software patents is controversial and still evolving in Europe and elsewhere. [1]

The related topics of software licenses, end user license agreements, free software licenses and open-source licenses can involve discussion of product liability, professional liability of individual developers, warranties, contract law, trade secrets and intellectual property.

In various countries, areas of the computing and communication industries are regulated – often strictly – by government bodies.

There are rules on the uses to which computers and computer networks may be put; in particular there are rules on unauthorized access, data privacy and spamming. There are also limits on the use of encryption and of equipment which may be used to defeat copy protection schemes. The export of Hardware and Software between certain states is also controlled.

There are laws governing trade on the Internet, taxation, consumer protection, and advertising.

There are laws on censorship versus freedom of expression, rules on public access to government information, and individual access to information held on them by private bodies. There are laws on what data must be retained for law enforcement, and what may not be gathered or retained, for privacy reasons.

In certain circumstances and jurisdictions, computer communications may be used in evidence, and to establish contracts. New methods of tapping and surveillance made possible by computers have wildly differing rules on how they may be used by law enforcement bodies and as evidence in court.

Computerized voting technology, from polling machines to internet and mobile-phone voting, raise a host of legal issues.

Some states limit access to the Internet, by law as well as by technical means.

Jurisdiction

Issues of jurisdiction and sovereignty have quickly come to the fore in the era of the Internet.

Jurisdiction is an aspect of state sovereignty and it refers to judicial, legislative and administrative competence. Although jurisdiction is an aspect of sovereignty, it is not coextensive with it. The laws of a nation may have extraterritorial impact extending the jurisdiction beyond the sovereign and territorial limits of that nation. This is particularly problematic as the medium of the Internet does not explicitly recognize sovereignty and territorial limitations. There is no uniform, international jurisdictional law of universal application, and such questions are generally a matter of conflict of laws, particularly private international law. An example would be where the contents of a web site are legal in one country and illegal in another. In the absence of a uniform jurisdictional code, legal practitioners are generally left with a conflict of law issue.

Another major problem of Cyberlaw lies in whether to treat the Internet as if it were physical space (and thus subject to a given jurisdiction’s laws) or to act as if the Internet is a world unto itself (and therefore free of such restraints). Those who favor the latter view often feel that government should leave the Internet community to self-regulate. John Perry Barlow, for example, has addressed the governments of the world and stated, “Where there are real conflicts, where there are wrongs, we will identify them and address them by our means. We are forming our own Social Contract. This governance will arise according to the conditions of our world, not yours. Our world is different”. [2] A more balanced alternative is the Declaration of Cybersecession: “Human beings possess a mind, which they are absolutely free to inhabit with no legal constraints. Human civilization is developing its own (collective) mind. All we want is to be free to inhabit it with no legal constraints. Since you make sure we cannot harm you, you have no ethical right to intrude our lives. So stop intruding!”[3] Other scholars argue for more of a compromise between the two notions, such as Lawrence Lessig’s argument that “The problem for law is to work out how the norms of the two communities are to apply given that the subject to whom they apply may be in both places at once” (Lessig, Code 190).

With the internationalism of the Internet, jurisdiction is a much more tricky area than before, and courts in different countries have taken various views on whether they have jurisdiction over items published on the Internet, or business agreements entered into over the Internet. This can cover areas from contract law, trading standards and tax, through rules on unauthorized access, data privacy and spamming to more political areas such as freedom of speech, censorship, libel or sedition.

Certainly, the frontier idea that the law does not apply in “Cyberspace” is not true. In fact, conflicting laws from different jurisdictions may apply, simultaneously, to the same event. The Internet does not tend to make geographical and jurisdictional boundaries clear, but Internet users remain in physical jurisdictions and are subject to laws independent of their presence on the Internet. [4] As such, a single transaction may involve the laws of at least three jurisdictions:

The laws of the state/nation in which the user resides,

The laws of the state/nation that apply where the server hosting the transaction is located, and

The laws of the state/nation which apply to the person or business with whom the transaction takes place.

So a user in one of the United States conducting a transaction with another user in Britain through a server in Canada could theoretically be subject to the laws of all three countries as they relate to the transaction at hand. [5]

In practical terms, a user of the Internet is subject to the laws of the state or nation within which he or she goes online. Thus, in the U.S., Jake Baker faced criminal charges for his e-conduct, and numerous users of peer-to-peer file-sharing software were subject to civil lawsuits for copyright infringement. This system runs into conflicts, however, when these suits are international in nature. Simply put, legal conduct in one nation may be decidedly illegal in another. In fact, even different standards concerning the burden of proof in a civil case can cause jurisdictional problems. For example, an American celebrity, claiming to be insulted by an online American magazine, faces a difficult task of winning a lawsuit against that magazine for libel. But if the celebrity has ties, economic or otherwise, to England, he or she can sue for libel in the British court system, where the standard of “libelous speech” is far lower.

Internet governance is a live issue in international fora such as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the role of the current US-based co-ordinating body, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) was discussed in the UN-sponsored World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in December 2003

Internet Law

If there are laws that could govern the Internet, then it appears that such laws would be fundamentally different from laws that geographic nations use today. The unique structure of the Internet has raised several judicial concerns. There is a substantial literature and commentary that the Internet is not only “regulable,” but is already subject to substantial law regulations, both public and private, by many parties and at many different levels. Since the Internet defies geographical boundaries, national laws can not apply globally and it has been suggested instead that the Internet can be self-regulated as being its own trans-national “nation”.

Since the Internet law represents a legal paradigm shift, it is still in the process of development. [6]

In their essay “Law and Borders — The Rise of Law in Cyberspace”, David R. Johnson and David G. Post argue that it became necessary for the Internet to govern itself and instead of obeying the laws of a particular country; “Internet citizens” will obey the laws of electronic entities like service providers. Instead of identifying as a physical person, Internet citizens will be known by their usernames or email addresses (or, more recently, by their Facebook accounts).

Leaving aside the most obvious examples of internet censorship in nations like China or Saudi Arabia or Iran (that monitor content), there are four primary modes of regulation of the internet described by Lawrence Lessig in his book, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace:

Law: Standard East Coast Code, and the most self-evident of the four modes of regulation. As the numerous statutes, evolving case law and precedents make clear; many actions on the internet are already subject to conventional legislation (both with regard to transactions conducted on the internet and images posted). Areas like gambling, child pornography, and fraud are regulated in very similar ways online as off-line. While one of the most controversial and unclear areas of evolving laws is the determination of what forum has subject matter jurisdiction over activity (economic and other) conducted on the internet, particularly as cross border transactions affect local jurisdictions, it is certainly clear that substantial portions of internet activity are subject to traditional regulation, and that conduct that is unlawful off-line is presumptively unlawful online, and subject to similar laws and regulations. Scandals with major corporations led to US legislation rethinking corporate governance regulations such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

Architecture: West Coast Code: these mechanisms concern the parameters of how information can and cannot be transmitted across the internet. Everything from internet filtering software (which searches for keywords or specific URLs and blocks them before they can even appear on the computer requesting them), to encryption programs, to the very basic architecture of TCP/IP protocol, falls within this category of regulation. It is arguable that all other modes of regulation either rely on, or are significantly supported by, regulation via West Coast Code.

Norms: As in all other modes of social interaction, conduct is regulated by social norms and conventions in significant ways. While certain activities or kinds of conduct online may not be specifically prohibited by the code architecture of the internet, or expressly prohibited by applicable law, nevertheless these activities or conduct will be invisibly regulated by the inherent standards of the community, in this case the internet “users.” And just as certain patterns of conduct will cause an individual to be ostracized from our real world society, so too certain actions will be censored or self-regulated by the norms of whatever community one chooses to associate with on the internet.

Markets: Closely allied with regulation by virtue of social norms, markets also regulate certain patterns of conduct on the internet. While economic markets will have limited influence over non-commercial portions of the internet, the internet also creates a virtual marketplace for information, and such information affects everything from the comparative valuation of services to the traditional valuation of stocks. In addition, the increase in popularity of the internet as a means for transacting all forms of commercial activity, and as a forum for advertisement, has brought the laws of supply and demand in cyberspace.

Net neutrality

Another major area of interest is net neutrality, which affects the regulation of the infrastructure of the Internet. Though not obvious to most Internet users, every packet of data sent and received by every user on the Internet passes through routers and transmission infrastructure owned by a collection of private and public entities, including telecommunications companies, universities, and governments. This is turning into one of the most critical aspects of Cyberlaw and has immediate jurisdictional implications, as laws in force in one jurisdiction have the potential to have dramatic effects in other jurisdictions when host servers or telecommunications companies are affected.

Free speech on the Internet

Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights calls for the protection of free expression in all media.

In comparison to traditional print-based media, the accessibility and relative anonymity of cyber space has torn down traditional barriers between an individual and his or her ability to publish. Any person with an internet connection has the potential to reach an audience of millions with little-to-no distribution costs. Yet this new form of highly accessible authorship in cyber space raises questions and perhaps magnifies legal complexities relating to the freedom and regulation of speech in cyberspace.

These complexities have taken many forms, three notable examples being the Jake Baker incident, in which the limits of obscene Internet postings were at issue, the controversial distribution of the DeCSS code, and Gutnick v Dow Jones, in which libel laws were considered in the context of online publishing. The last example was particularly significant because it epitomized the complexities inherent to applying one country’s laws (nation-specific by definition) to the internet (international by nature). In 2003, Jonathan Zittrain considered this issue in his paper, “Be Careful What You Ask For: Reconciling a Global Internet and Local Law”. [7]

In the UK the case of Keith-Smith v Williams confirmed that existing libel laws applied to internet discussions. [8]

In terms of the tort liability of ISPs and hosts of internet forums, Section 230(c) of the Communications Decency Act may provide immunity in the United States. [9]

Internet censorship

Main article: Internet censorship

In many countries, speech through cyberspace has proven to be another means of communication which has been regulated by the government. The “Open Net Initiative”,[10] whose mission statement is “to investigate and challenge state filtration and surveillance practices” to “…generate a credible picture of these practices,” has released numerous reports documenting the filtration of internet-speech in various countries. While China has thus far proven to be the most rigorous in its attempts to filter unwanted parts of the internet from its citizens, [11] many other countries – including Singapore, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia – have engaged in similar practices of Internet censorship. In one of the most vivid examples of information control, the Chinese government for a short time transparently forwarded requests to the Google search engine to its own, state-controlled search engines.

These examples of filtration bring to light many underlying questions concerning the freedom of speech. For example, does the government have a legitimate role in limiting access to information? And if so, what forms of regulation are acceptable? For example, some argue that the blocking of “BlogSpot” and other websites in India failed to reconcile the conflicting interests of speech and expression on the one hand and legitimate government concerns on the other hand. [12]

The Creation of Privacy in U.S. Internet Law

Warren and Brandeis

At the close of the 19th Century, concerns about privacy captivated the general public, and led to the 1890 publication of Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis: “The Right to Privacy”. [13] The vitality of this article can be seen today, when examining the USSC decision of Kyllo v. United States, 533 U.S. 27 (2001) where it is cited by the majority, those in concurrence, and even those in dissent. [14]

The motivation of both authors to write such an article is heavily debated amongst scholars; however, two developments during this time give some insight to the reasons behind it. First, the sensationalistic press and the concurrent rise and use of “yellow journalism” to promote the sale of newspapers in the time following the Civil War brought privacy to the forefront of the public eye. The other reason that brought privacy to the forefront of public concern was the technological development of “instant photography”. This article set the stage for all privacy legislation to follow during the 20 and 21st Centuries.

Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test and emerging technology

In 1967, the United States Supreme Court decision in Katz v United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967) established what is known as the Reasonable Expectation of Privacy Test to determine the applicability of the Fourth Amendment in a given situation. It should be noted that the test was not noted by the majority, but instead it was articulated by the concurring opinion of Justice Harlan. Under this test, 1) a person must exhibit an “actual (subjective) expectation of privacy” and 2) “the expectation [must] be one that society is prepared to recognize as ‘reasonable.’”

Privacy Act of 1974

Inspired by the Watergate scandal, the United States Congress enacted the Privacy Act of 1974 just four months after the resignation of then President Richard Nixon. In passing this Act, Congress found that “the privacy of an individual is directly affected by the collection, maintenance, use, and dissemination of personal information by Federal agencies” and that “the increasing use of computers and sophisticated information technology, while essential to the efficient operations of the Government, has greatly magnified the harm to individual privacy that can occur from any collection, maintenance, use, or dissemination of personal information.”

For more information see: Privacy Act of 1974

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978

Codified at 50 U.S.C. §§ 1801-1811, this act establishes standards and procedures for use of electronic surveillance to collect “foreign intelligence” within the United States. §1804(a) (7) (B). FISA overrides the Electronic Communications Privacy Act during investigations when foreign intelligence is “a significant purpose” of said investigation. 50 U.S.C. § 1804(a)(7)(B) and §1823(a)(7)(B). Another interesting result of FISA, is the creation of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC). All FISA orders are reviewed by this special court of federal district judges. The FISC meets in secret, with all proceedings usually also held from both the public eye and those targets of the desired surveillance.

For more information see: Foreign Intelligence Act

(1986) Electronic Communication Privacy Act

The ECPA represents an effort by the United States Congress to modernize federal wiretap law. The ECPA amended Title III (see: Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968) and included two new acts in response to developing computer technology and communication networks. Thus the ECPA in the domestic venue into three parts: 1) Wiretap Act, 2) Stored Communications Act, and 3) The Pen Register Act.

Types of Communication

Wire Communication: Any communication containing the human voice that travels at some point across a wired medium such as radio, satellite or cable.

Oral Communication:

Electronic Communication

The Wiretap Act: For Information See Wiretap Act

The Stored Communications Act: For information see Stored Communications Act

The Pen Register Act: For information see Pen Register Act

(1994) Driver’s Privacy Protection Act

The DPPA was passed in response to states selling motor vehicle records to private industry. These records contained personal information such as name, address, phone number, SSN, medical information, height, weight, gender, eye color, photograph and date of birth. In 1994, Congress passed the Driver’s Privacy Protection (DPPA), 18 U.S.C. §§ 2721-2725, to cease this activity.

For more information see: Driver’s Privacy Protection Act

(1999) Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

-This act authorizes widespread sharing of personal information by financial institutions such as banks, insurers, and investment companies. The GLBA permits sharing of personal information between companies joined together or affiliated as well as those companies unaffiliated. To protect privacy, the act requires a variety of agencies such as the SEC, FTC, etc. to establish “appropriate standards for the financial institutions subject to their jurisdiction” to “insure security and confidentiality of customer records and information” and “protect against unauthorized access” to this information. 15 U.S.C. § 6801

For more information see: Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

(2002) Homeland Security Act

-Passed by Congress in 2002, the Homeland Security Act, 6 U.S.C. § 222, consolidated 22 federal agencies into what is commonly known today as the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The HSA also created a Privacy Office under the DoHS. The Secretary of Homeland Security must “appoint a senior official to assume primary responsibility for privacy policy.” This privacy official’s responsibilities include but are not limited to: ensuring compliance with the Privacy Act of 1974, evaluating “legislative and regulatory proposals involving the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information by the Federal Government”, while also preparing an annual report to Congress.

For more information see: Homeland Security Act

(2004) Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

-This Act mandates that intelligence be “provided in its most shareable form” that the heads of intelligence agencies and federal departments “promote a culture of information sharing.” The IRTPA also sought to establish protection of privacy and civil liberties by setting up a five-member Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board. This Board offers advice to both the President of the United States and the entire executive branch of the Federal Government concerning its actions to ensure that the branch’s information sharing policies are adequately protecting privacy and civil liberties.

For more information see: Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

Legal enactments – examples

The Computer Misuse Act 1990[15] enacted by Great Britain on 29 June 1990, and which came into force on 29 August 1990, is an example of one of the earliest of such legal enactments. This Act was enacted with an express purpose of making “provision for securing computer material against unauthorized access or modification.” Certain major provisions of the Computer Misuse Act 1990 relate to:

“Unauthorized access to computer materials”,

“Unauthorized access with intent to commit or facilitate the commission of further offences”, and

“Unauthorized modification of computer material.”

The impact of the Computer Misuse Act 1990 has been limited and with the adoption of the Council of Europe adopts its Convention on Cyber-Crime, it has been indicated that amending legislation would be introduced in parliamentary session 2004–05 in order to rectify possible gaps in its coverage, which are many.

The CMA 1990 has many weaknesses; the most notable is its inability to cater for, or provide suitable protection against, a host of high tech attacks/crimes which have become more prevalent in the last decade. Certain attacks such as DDOS and BOTNET attacks cannot be effectively brought to justice under the CMA. This act has been under review for a number of years. Computer crimes such as electronic theft are usually prosecuted in the UK under the legislation that caters for traditional theft (Theft Act 1968), because the CMA is so ineffective.

A recent example of information technology law is India’s Information Technology Act of 2000 as amended by The Information Technology (amendment) Act of 2008 with The IT Rules of 2011. The Information Technology Act of 2000 was introduced on 9 June 2000. The Information Technology Act of 2000 came into force on 17 October 2000. This Act was amended vide Notification dated 27 October 2009. This Act applies to whole of India, and its provisions also apply to any offence or contravention, committed even outside the territorial jurisdiction of Republic of India, by any person irrespective of his nationality. In order to attract provisions of this Act, such an offence or contravention should involve a computer, computer system, or computer network located in India. The IT Act 2000 provides an extraterritorial applicability to its provisions by virtue of section 1(2) read with section 75.This Act has 90 sections.

India’s The Information Technology Act 2000 has tried to assimilate legal principles available in several such laws (relating to information technology) enacted earlier in several other countries, as also various guidelines pertaining to Information Technology Law. This is a modern legislation with crimes like Hacking ,Datatheft ,Spreading of Virus, Identity Theft, defmation, pornography, child pornography, cyber terrorism ,crimes by companies etc. defined at great length. The IT Rules of 2011 talk about compliance and acts as The Data Protection Law of India. It also has Rules for Intermediaries(ISP’s, Network service providers, cyber cafes etc.).Section 66A deal with crime of sending offensive messages through communication medium which include sms, mms, email, blogs etc. Almost all sections are cognizable in nature and persons so affected can apply for compensation from Adjudicator appointed under Section 46.Appeal from adjudicator lies to Cyber Appellate Tribunal.

Many Asian and Middle Eastern nations use any number of combinations of code-based regulation (one of Lessig’s four methods of net regulation) to block material that their governments have deemed inappropriate for their citizens to view. PRC, Saudi Arabia and Iran are three examples of nations that have achieved high degrees of success in regulating their citizens’ access to the Internet.[11][16]

Electronic signature laws

Australia – Electronic Transactions Act 1999 (Cth) (also note that there is State and Territory mirror legislation)

Costa Rica – Digital Signature Law 8454 (2005)

European Union – Electronic Signature Directive (1999/93/EC)

Mexico – E-Commerce Act [2000]

U.S. – Digital Signature And Electronic Authentication Law

U.S. – Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act

U.S. – Government Paperwork Elimination Act (GPEA)

U.S. – Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)

U.S. – Uniform Electronic Transactions Act – adopted by 46 states

UK – s.7 Electronic Communications Act 2000

Information technology law[edit]

Florida Electronic Security Act

Illinois Electronic Commerce Security Act

Texas Penal Code – Computer Crimes Statute

Maine Criminal Code – Computer Crimes

Singapore Electronic Transactions Act

Malaysia Computer Crimes Act

Malaysia Digital Signature Act

UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce

Information Technology Act 2000 of India

Thailand Computer Crimes Act B.E.2550

Information Technology Guidelines

ABA Digital Signature Guidelines

United States Office of Management and Budget

Enforcement agencies

The Information Technology Laws of various countries, and / or their criminal laws generally stipulate enforcement agencies, entrusted with the task of enforcing the legal provisions and requirements.

United States Federal Agencies

Many United States federal agencies oversee the use of information technology. Their regulations are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations of the United States.

Over 25 U.S. federal agencies have regulations concerning the use of digital and electronic signatures.[17]

India

A live example of such an enforcement agency is Cyber Crime Police Station, Bangalore,[18] India’s first exclusive Cyber Crime enforcement agency.

Other examples of such enforcement agencies include:

Cyber Crime Investigation Cell[19] of India’s Mumbai Police.

Cyber Crime Police Station[20] of the state Government of Andhra Pradesh, India. This Police station has jurisdiction over the entire state of Andhra Pradesh, and functions from the Hyderabad city.

In South India, the Crime Branch of Criminal Investigation Department, Tamilnadu police, India, has a Cyber Crime Cell at Chennai.

In East India, Cyber Crime Cells have been set up by the Kolkata Police as well as the Criminal Investigation Department, West Bengal.

Information Technology Lawyer

An information technology attorney is a professional who handles a variety of legal matters related to IT. The attorney gets involved in drafting, negotiating, and interpreting agreements in the areas of software licensing and maintenance, IT consulting, e-commerce, web site hosting and development, and telecommunications agreements, as well as handling dispute resolution and assisting with the client’s Internet domain name portfolio. An information technology attorney works with engineering, IT, and other business units and ensures that customer information gathered by company is collected, stored and used in compliance with privacy policies and applicable laws.

Duties also include providing high quality, specialized and practical advice in business-to-business and business-to-consumer arrangements and advising on issues like IT outsourcing arrangements, software and hardware supply and implementation agreements. An information technology attorney contracts for web site developers and consultants in relation to on-line projects. Provides support and maintains confidentiality/know how agreements. Contracts for Internet service providers and data protection advice. An information technology attorney should have a JD degree or an LL.M degree with admission to the local state bar.

Quotations

“In Cyberspace, the First Amendment is a local ordinance.”

— John Perry Barlow, quoted by Mitchell Kapor in the foreword to The Big Dummy’s Guide to the Internet

“National borders aren’t even speed bumps on the information superhighway.”

— Tim May, signature, from 1996

See also

Berkman Center for Internet & Society

Bernstein v. United States and Junger v. Daley – on free speech protection of software

Computer forensics

Computer crime

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)

Electronic Communications Privacy Act

Export of cryptography

Glossary of legal terms in technology

Software patent debate

Universal v. Reimerdes – test of DMCA

Ouellette v. Viacom International Inc. (DMCA and ADA)

Wassenaar Arrangement

Doe v. 2themart.com Inc. – First Amendment right to speak anonymously

United States v. Ivanov – Applying United States cyber-law to a foreign national operating outside the US

Centers and groups for the study of cyberlaw and related areas

Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard Law School

Centre for Internet and Society, in Bangalore, India.

Institute for Information, Telecommunication and Media Law in Münster, Germany

Institute of Space and Telecommunications Law (IDEST) at University of Paris-Sud, Master’s degree in Space Activities and Telecommunications Law

Master of New Technologies law[21] at Pablo de Olavide University in Seville, Spain

Norwegian Research Center for Computers and Law

Stanford Center for Internet and Society, at Stanford Law School

Topics related to cyberlaw

Copyright, especially the Digital Millennium Copyright Act in the United States, and similar laws in other countries

Cyber defamation law

Digital Rights Management

Intellectual property

Internet censorship

Stop Online Piracy Act

Spamming

The Law of Cyber-Space (book)

Conferences related to cyberlaw

State of Play, a conference series put on by the Institute for Information Law & Policy at New York Law School, concerning the intersection of virtual worlds, games and the law.

Further reading

Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, The Future of Ideas, and Free Culture by Lawrence Lessig

Cyber Rights by Mike Godwin

E-Commerce and Internet Law: Treatise with Forms 2d edition, by Ian C. Ballon

References

Computer Law: Drafting and Negotiating Forms and Agreements, by Richard Raysman and Peter Brown. Law Journal Press, 1999–2008. ISBN 978-1-58852-024-1

 Barlow, John P. “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace”.

 “An Introduction to Cybersecession”.

Trout, B. (2007). “Cyber Law: A Legal Arsenal For Online Business”, New York: World Audience, Inc.

Emerging Technologies and the Law: Forms and Analysis, by Richard Raysman, Peter Brown, Jeffrey D. Neuburger and William E. Bandon, III. Law Journal Press, 2002-2008. ISBN 1-58852-107-9

“Law and Borders – The Rise of Law in Cyberspace”. Cli.org. Retrieved 2013-11-05.

 Zittrain, Jonathan (2003). “Be Careful What You Ask For: Reconciling a Global Internet and Local Law”.

Gibson, Owen (March 23, 2006). “Warning to chatroom users after libel award for man labelled a Nazi”. The Guardian.

Myers KS (Fall 2006). “Wikimmunity: Fitting the Communications Decency Act to Wikipedia”. Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 20: 163. SSRN 916529.

 “opennetinitiative.net”. opennetinitiative.net. Retrieved 2012-01-17.

“All Content related to China”. OpenNet Initiative.

Free Speech Implications Of Blocking Blog Posts In India, taken from Aaron Kelly Internet Law Firm, Retrieved December 05, 2011.

Warren & Louis Brandeis, The Right to Privacy , 4 Harv. L. Rev. 193 (1890)

Solove, D.,Schwartz, P.. (2009). Privacy, Information, and Technology. (2nd Ed.). New York, NY: Aspen Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7355-7910-1.

 “[ARCHIVED CONTENT] Internet Crime – The Computer Misuse Act 1990″. Homeoffice.gov.uk. Retrieved 2012-01-17.

“All Content related to Saudi Arabia”. OpenNet Initiative.

“Federal Agency Digital and Electronic Signature Regulations”. Isaacbowman.com. 2009-03-16. Retrieved 2012-01-17.

“cyberpolicebangalore.nic.in”. cyberpolicebangalore.nic.in. Retrieved 2012-01-17.

[1][dead link]

[2][dead link]

“Centro de Estudios de Postgrado de la Universidad Pablo de Olavide”. Upo.es. Retrieved 2012-01-17.

External links

This article’s use of external links may not follow Wikipedia’s policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (November 2013)

Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School

Greplaw is a news and discussion site for legal and computing issues.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation works for individuals’ rights.

Text of the United States’ Security And Freedom through Encryption (SAFE) Act.

The Information Technology Act 2000 as Amended by The IT Act 2008 of India

Cyber Law Android App

US Department of Justice – Cyber crimes

CERT

Global School of Tech Juris Pioneering Cyber Law Institute

Indian Portal on Cyber Law

Computer Crime Research Center

Cyber crime and misuse of ICT-UNESCO

Digital Evidence

Computer Forensics World

“Model Information Technology Contract Terms and Systems Implementation Contracts in Europe” . European Newsletter, June 2006 Lestrade, K.OSt.J., SJDr, Dr. Edward

AHRC Research Centre for Studies in IP and IT Law at Edinburgh Law School

Critical analysis of proposed Information Technology Act, 2000 amendments

The proposed IT Act, 2000 amendments: Boon or bane

Global School of Tech Juris White Paper on Censoring the Indian Cyberspace

Global School of Tech Juris White Paper on Cyber Voyeurism Perverts Dot Com

You Be The Judge

India Articles on Cyber Crime & Cyber Law

Natural Porn Killers – Jayesh and Sunil Thacker (Mid Day – October 7, 2001)

HC admits cyberporn complaint as PIL (Times of India, July 13, 2001)

Cyberporn panel set up, HC wants minors protected, Sunil Thacker invited as a special invitee (Times of India, September 30, 2001)

indiacensored.com

Cyber Law Complete Information

Articles on Romanian Cyberlaw

Stanford Law School Cyberlaw Clinic

Santa Clara University School of Law Tech LawForum

Cybertelecom: Federal Internet Policy

Internet Library of Law and Court Decisions

Global Cyber Law Database

WorldLII Cyberspace Law

Cyber Law World

Computer Crime Research Center

ASCL Cyber Law Library

Borders on, or border around – the future of the Internet

White Paper on Information technology Act Amendments 2008

Thailand Computer Crimes Act B.E.2550 (2007)

Categories: Computer lawInformation technology

Wikipedia:WikiProject Countering systemic bias

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

People icon.svg          This is a WikiProject, an area for focused collaboration among Wikipedians.

Guide to WikiProjects Directory of WikiProjects

See also: Wikipedia:Systemic bias

WikiProject Countering systemic bias

2kip.png

Shortcut          WP:CSB

Category         WikiProject Countering systemic bias

Userbox          {{User CSB}}

The Wikipedia project suffers systemic bias that naturally grows from its contributors’ demographic groups, manifesting an imbalanced coverage of a subject, thereby discriminating against the less represented demographic groups. See an explanation of systemic bias on Wikipedia for how this may affect articles and content. This project aims to control and (possibly) eliminate the cultural perspective gaps made by the systemic bias, consciously focusing upon subjects and points of view neglected by the encyclopedia as a whole. A list of articles needing attention is in the CSB Open Tasks list.

Generally, this project concentrates upon remedying omissions (entire topics, or particular sub-topics in extant articles) rather than on either (1) protesting against inappropriate inclusions, or (2) trying to remedy issues of how material is presented. Thus, the first question is “What haven’t we covered yet?”, rather than “how should we change the existing coverage?” The 22 October 2013 essay by Tom Simonite in MIT’s Technology Review titled “The Decline of Wikipedia” discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on recent downward trends in the number of editors available to support Wikipedia’s range and coverage of topics.[1]

See further reading for studies, statistics, or other information that demonstrate contributor or subject imbalances.

Contents  

1 Tasks

2 Related WikiProjects and regional noticeboards

2.1 Africa

2.2 Latin America

2.3 Asia

2.4 Europe

2.5 Other projects

3 Related cleanup templates

4 Members

5 See also

6 Further reading

Tasks

There are many things you may do, listed roughly from least to most intensive:

Sign up as a participant and mention any interests you may have related to “Countering systemic bias” (CSB).

Add the Open Tasks box ({{WikiProjectCSBTasks}}) to your User or User talk page to let other people know about the issue.

Read news articles in as many languages as you know, from as many news sources as you can find, from as many political view points as you can find (especially those that you would normally not read) when examining a topical or recent event or editing an existing article related to a particular subject.

Don’t overlook the official news outlets of a country. Certainly they will be more one sided than wikipedians may like, but they may provide a different way of thinking about an article. They may also be useful as a primary source of information about why the government of that particular country has its opinion on a subject and why it acts the way it does. The readers of Wikipedia could benefit from this, regardless of whether they agree with that view or not (if they don’t, they may use it to find errors in its logic or thinking). For example, official news outlets may be useful indicators of how Mainland China thinks about Tibet or Taiwan. Secondly, they may provide relevant non-controversial information about the country or its leaders which could help in improving the article on that topic, for instance, date and place of birth, occupation of leaders, cultural heritage of, links to and other tidbits which may not be available elsewhere.

See if there are web pages on a particular subject which were written by people from other countries or cultures. It may provide you other places to look or other points of view to consider.

Be more conscious of your own biases in the course of normal editing. Look at the articles you work on usually and think about whether they are written from an international perspective. If not, you might be able to learn a lot about a subject you thought you knew by adding content with a different perspective.

Occasionally edit a subject that is systemically biased against the pages of your natural interests. The net effect of consciously changing one out of every twenty of your edits to something outside your “comfort zone” would be substantial.

Create or edit one of the articles listed on the CSB template.

If you don’t particularly like any of the subjects on the template, our open tasks list has a wide array of articles in need of attention.

Add to the open tasks list. No one person can fix a system-wide problem, so be sure to tell people when you find needy articles.

Rotate articles from the open tasks list to the template, and other helpful tidying tasks.

Check articles to see if they still need work, and if they’ve been improved move them to the right section or leave a note.

Give feedback on this WikiProject on the talk page.

If you’re multilingual, add information from Wikipedia articles in other languages to their English Wikipedia counterparts.

Contribute to articles on under-represented topics that you are familiar with.

Be careful not to worsen the bias with your deletion nominations. If you are not familiar with a subject area, or it has meaning outside your experience base, discuss your concerns on the talk page or another appropriate forum before making an AfD nomination.

Change the demographic of Wikipedia. Encourage friends and acquaintances that you know have interests that are not well-represented on Wikipedia to edit. If you are at high school or university, contact a professor in minority, women’s, or critical studies, explain the problem, and ask if they would be willing to encourage students to write for Wikipedia. Contact minority or immigrant organizations in your area to see if they would be interested in encouraging their members to contribute. The worst they could say is, “No”. But keep in mind that immigrant organizations may well have a different point of view than the majority of people in the countries they emigrated from (their members may, for example, be members of a minority themselves or may have emigrated because of a disagreement with the government not shared by the majority of the population), which introduces its own systemic bias.

Related WikiProjects and regional noticeboards

There are several WikiProjects and regional notice boards that have potential to help out in our efforts. We may also eventually want to create new WikiProjects as part of this effort.

Article Rescue Squadron

Middle Eastern military history task force

WikiProject Authors

WikiProject Biblical Criticism

WikiProject Biography

WikiProject Disability

WikiProject Ethnic Groups

WikiProject Gender Studies

WikiProject Feminism

Hinduism-related topics notice board

WikiProject Islam

WikiProject Languages

WikiProject Organized Labour

WikiProject political figures

WikiProject Military history

WikiProject World music (includes tasks to do)

Wikipedia:WikiProject Women’s sport

Wikipedia:WikiProject Football/Women’s football task force

See also:

Category:WikiProjects relevant for countering systemic bias

{{Infobox WikiProject}}, which has a |csb=yes parameter putting projects in that category

Africa

Africa-related regional notice board

These are the African WikiProjects.

Pan-African     WikiAfrica

Continental    Africa

Northern Africa          Algeria | Egypt | Libya | Morocco | South Sudan | Sudan | Tunisia | Western Sahara

Eastern Africa Burundi | Comoros | Djibouti | Eritrea | Ethiopia | Kenya | Madagascar | Malawi | Mauritius | Mozambique | Rwanda | Seychelles | Somalia | Tanzania | Uganda | Zambia | Zimbabwe

Middle Africa  Angola | Cameroon | Central African Republic | Chad | Democratic Republic of the Congo | Republic of the Congo | Equatorial Guinea | Gabon | Sao Tome and Principe

Southern Africa          Botswana | Lesotho | Namibia | South Africa | Swaziland

Western Africa           Benin | Burkina Faso | Cape Verde | Gambia | Ghana | Guinea | Guinea-Bissau | Ivory Coast | Liberia | Mali | Mauritania | Niger | Nigeria | Senegal | Sierra Leone | Togo

Territories       French Africa | Madeira | Saint Helena | Spanish Africa

Culture            Igbo | Yoruba

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UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS should be referred to for further investigation for the entire planet.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
en.wikipedia.org
  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948 at the Palais de Chaillot, Paris. The Declaration arose directly from the experience of the Second World War and …
  • en.wikipedia.org

ET Report on Human Progress – Edward Snowden -Major Player for Change

HUMAN PROGRESS REPORT

Interesting lawful Information Distinct from Right Truth

Journalistic free information versus individuals selling information for gain

Edward Snowden Poster Boy for Change in Cyberspace Data Gathering Content

By Theresa J Thurmond Morris

Terrified Business Writing for Hire about Could-Should-Would versus Experiencing-Knowing-Sharing

When is it right for a human being to share what one knows to be their own experiences as in knowing and sharing their truth?

I have contemplated this feeling of experiencing-knowing-sharing versus could-should-would inside my very own soul on many occasions when it comes to addressing the public as a freelance journalist, blogger, web writer. Imparticular in the world of which I am a part in the social paranormal community of cosmology and UFOlogy. We also refer to this as the Alien ET UFO Community.

UFO Disclosure of past histories around the world relating to prior governments collecting data information of downed Flying Saucers, Spacecraft Not of Earth Origin, UFOS and USOS and capture of Aliens, Ets, and Alien Hybrid Sentient Intelligent Beings is all a part of the past, present and future.

We are they whom come and go in our various levels of the evolutionary ladder of rebirth and reincarnation of the humanoid sentient intelligent being species.

As one who has been asked to report on my own opinions and views of one young American 30 year old man born in North Carolina named Edward Snowden, it has been a subject I have only monitored as most people have based on the released information on the Internet in cyberspace.

The topic of Edward Snowden sharing information as a “Whistle Blower” among many of my peers has been one of popular shares on the TJ Morris ET Radio show on Blog Talk Radio.

Revealing the most helpful techniques for sharing opinions, thoughts, and views with regard to a social networking community online is what I am inspired to co-create with my friends.

How we come to speak of topics is a serendipity type of behavior in synchronicity and yet the name Edward Snowden keeps cropping up as a major human being who is a part of the change in the communication exchange of information regarding the whole entire global critical mass mind.

NSA and CIA are two of the acronyms in what is popular in what we call the “Alphabet Soup of the Intelligence Community” online.

I prefer to remain under the spirituality and paranormal genres inside the internet at this time because of my interest in what in the past was not mainstream news. However, this is now changing as the information we exchange inside the cyberspace internet collection of data mining changes.

We are co-creators with the entire working world and leisure world of entertainment inside the internet. We are growing inside the macrocosm of the global brain in cyberspace and we can no longer deny access to that which becomes exposed in various channels outside of the controlled mainstream news by huge corporations who controlled the NEWS MEDIA in the past.

We are all capable of intelligence gathering due to the communication products which have joined us all together around the world.

The fact that Edward Snowden has become the “POSTER BOY FOR CHANGE IN DATA INFORMATION SHARING” is now a known fact in the world.

Whether we like the man or not does not matter since the information of what companies he has worked for in the past such as CIA and NSA has now taken us all including “MAIN STREAM MEDIA” by storm. We who are the outskirts press as freelancers and website owners and bloggers are all now a part of something much more than what was once only controlled by the rich and notorious. Some may even say that those in charge with their power and greed of past products and services is taken aback by our present day power of communication which has been handed over to the critical mass media now available in cyberspace by OPEN SOURCE information which is co-created for free by many who were trained in the technological age of computers. Technology is now a part of who we are, what we are, and what we are doing.

I am including from a free source of information on the Internet an interview with the source listed for my friends to share with their friends on FACEBOOK and other FREE CHANNELS inside CYBERSPACE. This is the way information is now shared and sent to those who in the past more than likely did not care about the details of what makes the world go round in the journalistic world.

Please share this information when and where you can. Thank you. Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris

Edward Snowden former NSA of USA Employee a FULL TRANSCRIPT:

Source: http://nextnewsnetwork.com/news/full-video-edward-snowden-on-german-tv-us-media-blackout/

Interviewer: Mr. Snowden, did you sleep well the last couple of nights? Because, I was reading that you asked for a kind of police protection. Are there any threats?

Snowden: There are significant threats but I sleep very well. There was an article that came out in an online outlet called BuzzFeed where they interviewed officials from the Pentagon, from the National Security Agency and they gave them anonymity to be able to say what they wanted, and what they told the reporter was that they wanted to murder me. These individuals, and these are acting government officials, they said they would be happy, they would love to put a bullet in my head, to poison me as I was returning from the grocery store, and have me die in the shower.

Interviewer: But, fortunately, you are still alive with us.

Snowden: Right, but I’m still alive, and I don’t lose sleep because I’ve done what I feel I needed to do. It was the right thing to do. And, I’m not going to be afraid.

Interviewer: “The greatest fear I have,” and I quote you, “regarding these disclosures is nothing will change.” That was one of your greatest concerns at the time, but in the meantime there is a vivid discussion about the situation with the NSA. Not only in America but also in Germany and in Brazil, and President Obama was forced to go public and to justify what the NSA was doing on legal grounds.

Snowden: What we saw initially in response to the revelations was sort of a circling of the wagons of government around the National Security Agency. Instead of circling around the public and protecting their rights, the political class circled around the security state and protected their rights. What’s interesting is, though that was the initially response, since then we’ve seen a softening. We’ve seen the President acknowledge that when he first said “we’ve drawn the right balance, there are no abuses,” we’ve seen him and his officials admit that there have been abuses. There have been thousands of violations of the National Security Agency and other agencies, authorities, every single year.

Interviewer: Is the speech of Obama recently the beginning of a serious regulation?

Snowden: It was clear from the President’s speech that he wanted to make minor changes to preserve authorities that we don’t need. The President created a review board from officials that were personal friends, from national security insiders, former Deputy of the CIA, people who had every incentive to be soft on these programs and to see them in the best possible light. But what they found was that these programs have no value, they’ve never stopped a terrorist attack in the United States, and they have marginal utility at best for other things. The only thing that the Section 215 phone meta-data program, actually it’s a broader meta-data program of bulk collection, bulk collection means mass surveillance, program was in stopping or detecting a $8,500 wire transfer from a cab driver in California. And, it’s this kind of review, where insiders go “we don’t need these programs; these programs don’t make us safe. They take a tremendous amount of resources to run, and they offer us no value.” They go “we can modify these.” The National Security agency operates under the President’s executive authority alone. He can end, or modify, or direct a change in their policies at any time.

Interviewer: For the first time President Obama did concede that the NSA collects and stores trillions of data.

Snowden: Every time you pick up the phone, dial a number, write an email, make a purchase, travel on the bus carrying a cell phone, swipe a card somewhere, you leave a trace. And, the government has decided that it’s a good idea to collect it all. Everything. Even if you’ve never been suspected of any crime. Traditionally the government would identify a suspect, they would go to a judge, and they would say we suspect he’s committed this crime, they would get a warrant and then they would be able to use the totality of their powers in pursuit of the investigation. Nowadays what we see is they want to apply the totality of their powers in advance, prior to an investigation.

Interviewer: You started this debate. Edward Snowden is, in the meantime, a household name for the whistleblower in the age of the internet. You were working until last summer for the NSA, and during this time you collected, secretly, thousands of confidential documents. What was the decisive moment, or was there a long period of time, or something happening? Why did you do this?

Snowden: I would say sort of the breaking point is seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, directly lie under oath to Congress. There’s no saving an intelligence community that believes it can lie to the public and the legislators who need to be able to trust it and regulate its actions. Seeing that, for me, really meant for me there was no going back. Beyond that, it was the creeping realization that no one else was going to do this. The public had a right to know about these programs. The public had a right to know that which the government is doing in its name, and that which the government is doing against the public, but neither of these things we were allowed to discuss, we were allowed no, even the wider body of our elected representatives were prohibited from knowing or discussing these programs, and that’s a dangerous thing. The only review we had was from a secret court, the FISA Court, which is a sort of rubber stamp authority.

When you are on the inside and you go into work every day and you sit down at the desk and you realize the power you have, you can wiretap the President of the United States, you can wiretap a Federal Judge, and, if you do it carefully no one will ever know because the only way the NSA discovers abuses are from self-reporting.

Interviewer: We’re not talking only of the NSA as far as this is concerned. There is a multilateral agreement for cooperation among the services and this alliance of intelligence operations is known as The Five Eyes. What agencies and countries belong to this alliance, and what is its purpose?

Snowden: The Five Eyes alliance is sort of an artifact of the post-World War II era where the Anglophone countries are the major powers banded together to sort of cooperate and share the costs of intelligence gathering infrastructure.

So we have the UK’s GCHQ, we have the US NSA, we have Canada’s C-Sec, we have the Australian Signals Intelligence Directorate and we have New Zealand’s DSD. What the result of this was, over decades and decades, what sort of a supra-national intelligence organization that doesn’t answer to the laws of its own countries.

Interviewer: In many countries, as in America too, the agencies like the NSA are not allowed to spy within their own borders on their own people. So, the Brits for example, they can spy on everybody but the Brits. But, the NSA can conduct surveillance in England. So, in the very end they could exchange their data and it would be, they would be, strictly following the law.

Snowden: If you ask the governments about this directly they would deny it and point to policy agreements between the members of the Five Eyes saying that they won’t spy on each other’s citizens. But, there are a couple of key points there. One is that the way they define spying is not the collection of data. The GCHQ is collecting an incredible amount of data on British citizens, just as the National Security Agency is gathering an enormous amount of data on US citizens. What they are saying is that they will not then target people within that data. They won’t look for UK citizens or British citizens. In addition, the policy agreements between them that say British won’t target US citizens, US won’t target British citizens, are not legally binding. The actual memorandums of agreement state specifically on that that they are not intended to put a legal restriction on any government. Their policy agreements that can be deviated from or broken at any time. So if they want to spy on a British citizen, they can spy on a British citizen, and then they can even share that data with the British government that is itself forbidden from spying on UK citizens. So there is a sort of a trading dynamic there, but it’s not, it’s not open, it’s more of a nudge and wink. And, beyond that, the key is to remember the surveillance and the abuse doesn’t occur when people look at the data, it occurs when people gather the data in the first place.

Interviewer: How narrow is the cooperation of the German Secret Service BND with the NSA and the Five Eyes?

Snowden: I would describe it as intimate. As a matter of fact, the first way I described it in our written interview, was that the German Services and the US Services are in bed together. They not only share information, the reporting of results from intelligence, but they actually share the tools and the infrastructure. They work together against joint targets in services. And, there’s a lot of danger in this. One of the major programs that face abuse in the National Security Agency is what’s called “XKeyscore.” It’s a front end search engine that allows them to look through all of the records they collect worldwide every day.

Interviewer: What could you do if you would sit so to speak in their place with this kind of instrument?

Snowden: You could read anyone’s email in the world. Anybody you got an email address for, any website you can watch traffic to and from it, any computer that an individual sits at, you can watch it, any laptop that you’re tracking, you can follow it as it moves from place to place throughout the world. It’s a one stop shop for access to the NSA’s information. And what’s more, you can tag individuals using “XKeyscore.” Where, let’s say I saw you once and I thought what you were doing was interesting, or you just have access that’s interesting to me. Let’s say you work at a major German corporation, and I want access to that network. I can track your username on a website, on a form somewhere, I can track your real name, I can track associations with your friends, and I can build what’s called a fingerprint, which is network activity unique to you, which means anywhere you go in the world, anywhere you try to sort of hide your online presence, hide your identity, the NSA can find you. And, anyone who’s allowed to use this, or who the NSA shares their software with, can do the same thing. Germany is one of the countries that have access to “XKeyscore.”

Interviewer: This sounds rather frightening. The question is, does the BND deliver data of Germans to the NSA?

Snowden: Whether the BND does it directly, or knowingly, the NSA gets German data. Whether it’s provided, I can’t speak to until it’s been reported, because it would be classified. And, I prefer that journalists make the distinctions, and the decisions, about what is public interest and what should be published. However, it’s no secret that every country in the world has the data of their citizens in the NSA. Millions and millions and millions of data connections, from Germans going about their daily lives, talking on their cell phones, sending SMS messages, visiting websites, buying things online, all of this ends up at the NSA. And, it’s reasonable to suspect that the BND may be aware of it in some capacity. Now, whether or not they actively provide the information, I should not say.

Interviewer: The BND basically argues if we do this, we do this accidentally actually, and our filter didn’t work.

Snowden: Right. So, the kind of things that they’re discussing there are two things. They’re talking about filtering of ingest, which means when the NSA puts a secret server in a German telecommunications provider, or they hack a German router and they divert the traffic in a manner that lets them search through things, they’re saying “if I see what I think is a German talking to another German I’ll drop it.” But, how do you know? You could say “well, these people are speaking the German language, this IP address seems to be from a German company to another German company,” but that’s not accurate, and they wouldn’t dump all of that traffic because they’ll get people who are targets of interest, who are actively in Germany using German communications. So, realistically, what’s happening is when they say “there’s no spying on Germans,” they don’t mean that German data isn’t being gathered, they don’t mean that records aren’t being taken or stolen. What they mean is that they’re not intentionally searching for German citizens. And, that’s sort of a fingers crossed behind the back promise, it’s not reliable.

Interviewer: What about other European countries, like Norway and Sweden for example, because we have a lot of, I think, underwater cables going through the Baltic Sea.

Snowden: So, this is sort of an expansion of the same idea. If the NSA isn’t collecting information on German citizens in Germany, are they as soon as it leaves German borders? And, the answer is “yes.” Any single communication that transits the internet, the NSA may intercept at multiple points. They might see it in Germany, they might see it in Sweden, they might see it in Norway or Finland, they might see it in Britain, and they might see it in the United States. Any single one of these places that a German communication crosses; it’ll be ingested and added to the database.

Interviewer: So, let’s come to our southern European neighbors then. What about Italy? What about France? What about Spain?

Snowden: It’s the same deal worldwide.

Interviewer: Does the NSA spy on Siemens? On Mercedes? On other successful German companies, for example, to prevail, to have the advantage of knowing what is going on in a scientific and economic world?

Snowden: I don’t want to preempt the editorial decisions of journalists.

Interviewer: Ok.

Snowden: But, what I will say is there’s no question that the US is engaged in economic spying. If there’s information at Siemens that they think would be beneficial to the national interests, not the national security of the United States, they’ll go after that information, and they’ll take it.

Interviewer: There is this old saying “you do whatever you can do.” So, the NSA is doing whatever is technically possible.

Snowden: This is something that the President touched on last year, where he said that just because we can do something, and this was in relation to tapping Angela Merkel’s phone. Just because we can do something, doesn’t mean that we should. And, that’s exactly what’s happened. The technological capabilities that have been provided, because of sort of weak security standards in internet protocols and cellular communications networks, have meant that intelligence services can create systems that see everything.

Interviewer: Nothing annoyed the German government more than the fact that the NSA taped the private phone of the German Chancellor Merkel over the last 10 years, obviously. Suddenly this invisible surveillance was connected with a known face and was not connected with a kind of watery, shady terrorist background. Obama now promised to stop snooping on Merkel, which raises the question “did the NSA tape already previous governments, including the previous chancellors, and when did they do that? And, how long did they do this for?”

Snowden: This is a particularly difficult question for me to answer, because there’s information that I very strongly believe is in the public interest. However, as I’ve said before, I prefer for journalists to make those decisions in advance, review the material themselves, and decide whether or not the public value of this information outweighs the sort of reputational cost to the officials that ordered the surveillance. What I can say is we know Angela Merkel was monitored by the National Security Agency. The question is how reasonable is it to assume that she is the only German official that was monitored? How reasonable is it to believe that she’s the only prominent German face who the National Security Agency was watching? I would suggest it seems unreasonable that if anyone was concerned about the intentions of German leadership, that they would only watch Merkel and not her aides, not other prominent officials, not heads of ministries, or even local government officials.

Interviewer: How does a young man from Elizabeth City in North Carolina, 30 years old, get in such a position in such a sensitive area?

Snowden: That’s a very difficult question to answer. In general, I would say it highlights the dangers of privatizing government functions. I worked previously as an actual staff officer, a government employee for the Central Intelligence Agency, but I’ve also served much more frequently as a contractor in a private capacity. What that means is, you have private for-profit companies doing inherently governmental work, like targeted espionage, surveillance, compromising foreign systems. And, anyone who has the skills, who can convince a private company that they have the qualifications to do so, will be empowered by the government to do that, and there’s very little oversight. There’s very little review.

Interviewer: Have you been one of these classical computer kids sitting red eyed during the nights in the age of 12, 15, and your father was knocking on your door and saying “switch off the light, it’s too late now?” Did you get your computer skills from that side? Or, when did you get your first computer?

Snowden: (laughter) Right, right. I definitely have had a, shall we say, a deep informal education in computers and electronic technology. They’ve always been fascinating and interesting to me. (laughter) The characterization of having your parents telling you to go to bed, I would say is fair.

Interviewer: If one looks to the little public data of your life, one discovers that you, obviously, wanted to join in May 2004, the Special Forces to fight in Iraq. What did motivate you at the time? You know, Special Forces, looking at you in the very moment, means grim fighting, and it means probably killing. And, did you ever get to Iraq?

Snowden: No, I didn’t get to Iraq. One of the interesting things about the Special Forces are that they’re not actually intended for direct combat. They’re what’s referred to as “a force multiplier.” They’re inserted behind enemy lines. It’s a squad that has a number of different specialties in it, and they teach and enable the local population to resist, or to support, US forces in a way that allows the local population a chance to help determine their own destiny. And, I felt that was an inherently noble thing at the time. In hindsight, some of the reasons that we went into Iraq were not well founded. And, I think did a disservice to everyone involved.

Interviewer: What happened to your adventure then? Did you stay long with them? Or, what happened to you?

Snowden: No, I broke my legs when I was in training and was discharged.

Interviewer: So it was a short adventure in other words?

Snowden: It was a short adventure.

Interviewer: In 2007 the CIA stationed you with a diplomatic cover in Geneva, in Switzerland. Why did you join the CIA by the way?

Snowden: I don’t think I can actually answer that one.

Interviewer: OK, if it’s what you have been doing there, forget it. But why did you join the CIA?

Snowden: In many ways I think it’s a continuation of trying to do everything I could to prosecute the public good in the most effective way. And, it’s in line with the rest of my government service where I tried to use my technical skills in the most difficult positions I could find in the world, and the CIA offered that.

Interviewer: If we go back, Special Forces, CIA, NSA, it’s not actually in the description of a human rights activist, or somebody who becomes a whistleblower after this. What happens to you?

Snowden: I think it tells a story, and that’s, no matter how deeply an individual is embedded in the government, no matter how faithful to the government they are, no matter how strongly they believe in the causes of their government, as I did during the Iraq war, people can learn, people can discover the line between appropriate government behavior and actual wrongdoing. And, I think it became clear to me that that line had been crossed.

Interviewer: You worked for the NSA through a private contractor with the name Booze Allen Hamilton, one of the big ones in the business. What is the advantage for the US Government, or the CIA, to work through a private contractor, to outsource a central government function?

Snowden: The contracting culture of the national security community in the United States is a complex topic. It’s driven by a number of interests between primarily limiting the number of direct government employees at the same time as keeping lobbying groups in Congress, typically from very well-funded businesses such as Booze Allen Hamilton. The problem there is you end up in a situation where government policies are being influenced by private corporations who have interests that are completely divorced from the public good in mind. The result of that is what we saw at Booze Allen Hamilton, where you have private individuals who have access to, what the government alleges were millions and millions of records that they could walk out the door with at any time with no accountability, no oversight, no auditing, the government didn’t even know they were gone.

Interviewer: At the very end you ended up in Russia. Many of the intelligence communities’ suspect you made a deal, classified material for Asylum here in Russia.

Snowden: The Chief of the Task Force investigating me, as recently as December, said that their investigation had turned up no evidence, or indications at all, that I had any outside help, or contact, or had made a deal of any kind to accomplish my mission. I worked alone. I didn’t need anybody’s help. I don’t have any ties to foreign governments. I’m not a spy for Russia, or China, or any other country for that matter. If I am a traitor, who did I betray? I gave all of my information to the American public, to American journalists, who are reporting on American issues. If they see that as treason, I think people really need to consider who do they think they’re working for. The public is supposed to be their boss, not their enemy. Beyond that, as far as my personal safety, I’ll never be fully safe until these systems have changed.

Interviewer: After your revelations, none of the European countries really offered you asylum. Where did you apply in Europe for asylum?

Snowden: I can’t remember the list of countries with any specificity because there were many of them. But, France, Germany were definitely in there, as was the UK. A number of European countries, all of whom, unfortunately, felt that doing the right thing was less important than supporting US political concerns.

Interviewer: One reaction to the NSA snooping is in the very moment that countries like Germany are thinking to create national internets, an attempt to force internet companies to keep their data in their own country. Does this work?

Snowden: It’s not gonna stop the NSA. Let’s put it that way. The NSA goes where the data is. If the NSA can pull text messages out of telecommunication networks in China, they can probably manage to get Facebook messages out of Germany. Ultimately, the solution to that is not to try to stick everything in a walled garden, although that does raise the level of sophistication and complexity of taking the information. It’s also much better simply to secure the information internationally against everyone, rather than playing ‘let’s move the data.’ Moving the data isn’t fixing the problem. Securing the data is the problem.

Interviewer: President Obama, in the very moment, obviously doesn’t care too much about the message of the leak. And, together with the NSA, they do care very much more about catching the messenger in that context. Obama asked the Russian president several times to extradite you. But Putin did not. It looks that you will stay to the rest of your life, probably in Russia. How do you feel about Russia in that context, and is there a solution to this problem.

Snowden: I think it’s becoming increasingly clear that these leaks didn’t cause harm, in fact, they served the public good. Because of that, I think it will be very difficult to maintain sort of an ongoing campaign of persecution against someone who the public agrees serve the public interest.

Interviewer: The New York Times wrote a very long comment, and demanded clemency for you. The headline “Edward Snowden Whistleblower,” and I quote from that, “the public learned in great detail how the agency has extended its mandate and abused its authority.” And, the New York Times closes, “President Obama should tell his aides to begin finding a way to end Mr. Snowden’s vilification, and give him an incentive to return home.” Did you get a call in between from the White House?

Snowden: I’ve never received a call from the White House, and I am not waiting by the phone. But, I would welcome the opportunity to talk about how we can bring this to a conclusion that serves the interest of all parties. I think it’s clear there are times where what is lawful is distinct from what is rightful. There are times throughout history and it doesn’t take long for, either an American, or a German, to think about times in the history of their country where the law provided the government to do things which were not right.

Interviewer: President Obama, obviously, is in the very moment not quite convinced of that, because he said to you are charged with three felonies. And, I quote, “if you, Edward Snowden, believe in what you did, you should go back to America, appear before the court with a lawyer and make your case.” Is this the solution?

Snowden: It’s interesting because he mentions three felonies. What he doesn’t say is that the crimes that he’s charged me with are crimes that don’t allow me to make my case. They don’t allow me to defend myself in an open court to the public and convince a jury that what I did was to their benefit. The Espionage Act was never intended, it’s from 1918, it was never intended to prosecute journalistic sources, people who are informing the newspapers about information that’s of public interest. It was intended for people who are selling documents in secret to foreign governments, who are bombing bridges, who are sabotaging communications, not people who are serving the public good. So, it’s, I would say, illustrative that the president would choose to say someone should face the music when he knows the music is a show trial.



TJ Morris ET Radio –Off World Beings Monitoring HUMAN PROGRESS

TJ Morris ET Radio is owned by TJ Morris ACO LLC – Broadcast Media – ACO PRESS CORPS- Communication Online Skills as an Associates Cooperative Organization. ACO LLC is managed by managers around the North American Continent including USA, Canada, and Mexico with associates in India.

Focused on the communication of truth among truthseekers and spirituality among Lightworkers their members are interested in the metaphysical and esoteric which includes the serendipity synchronicities of the supernatural. Sharing spiritual seers guidance with those of the Ascension Avatar Masters who share past life reincarnation, astral travel, out-of-body, near death experiences, ancient mystery schools, and new thought teachings…

Today is the first day of the rest of our lives on planet earth.

We are a hubris race of sentient intelligent beings with an overall ego which wants us to share that we are the supreme intelligent creation of this universal order.

Most of our world relations want us to share our world religions which have been a part of our cultures and traditions around the world.

We share what we call cyberspace internet and World Wide Web of information with those who care to share communication of our art, culture, education, entertainment, fellowship, folklife, gaming, history, science, spirituality, technology, and an eclectic point of view of how we all fit into the larger macrocosm picture.

Many of us are web writers and share our own communication as what is now called bloggers as web loggers. This is now a part of our new culture on the internet.

We are co-creators of the community online practicing skills which we shall teach our children in our schools around the world and in cyberspace. The world has changed and we are changing with it.

Join us weekly to find out how you can become a part of our authors and speakers –ACO Culture Club with TJ Morris.   

TJ Morris ET shares UFO Humanoids GOD has Always Been! 01/20 by TJMorrisETradio | Paranormal Podcasts

TJ Morris ET shares UFO Humanoids GOD has Always Been! 01/20 by TJMorrisETradio | Paranormal Podcasts

HUMAN PROGRESS REPORT

Interesting lawful Information Distinct from Right Truth

Journalistic free information versus individuals selling information for gain

Edward Snowden Poster Boy for Change in Cyberspace Data Gathering Content

By Theresa J Thurmond Morris


Terrified Business Writing for Hire about Could-Should-Would versus Experiencing-Knowing-Sharing

When is it right for a human being to share what one knows to be their own experiences as in knowing and sharing their truth?

I have contemplated this feeling of experiencing-knowing-sharing versus could-should-would inside my very own soul on many occasions when it comes to addressing the public as a freelance journalist, blogger, web writer. Imparticular in the world of which I am a part in the social paranormal community of cosmology and UFOlogy. We also refer to this as the Alien ET UFO Community.

UFO Disclosure of past histories around the world relating to prior governments collecting data information of downed Flying Saucers, Spacecraft Not of Earth Origin, UFOS and USOS and capture of Aliens, Ets, and Alien Hybrid Sentient Intelligent Beings is all a part of the past, present and future.

We are they whom come and go in our various levels of the evolutionary ladder of rebirth and reincarnation of the humanoid sentient intelligent being species.

As one who has been asked to report on my own opinions and views of one young American 30 year old man born in North Carolina named Edward Snowden, it has been a subject I have only monitored as most people have based on the released information on the Internet in cyberspace.

The topic of Edward Snowden sharing information as a “Whistle Blower” among many of my peers has been one of popular shares on the TJ Morris ET Radio show on Blog Talk Radio.

Revealing the most helpful techniques for sharing opinions, thoughts, and views with regard to a social networking community online is what I am inspired to co-create with my friends.

How we come to speak of topics is a serendipity type of behavior in synchronicity and yet the name Edward Snowden keeps cropping up as a major human being who is a part of the change in the communication exchange of information regarding the whole entire global critical mass mind.

NSA and CIA are two of the acronyms in what is popular in what we call the “Alphabet Soup of the Intelligence Community” online.

I prefer to remain under the spirituality and paranormal genres inside the internet at this time because of my interest in what in the past was not mainstream news. However, this is now changing as the information we exchange inside the cyberspace internet collection of data mining changes.

We are co-creators with the entire working world and leisure world of entertainment inside the internet. We are growing inside the macrocosm of the global brain in cyberspace and we can no longer deny access to that which becomes exposed in various channels outside of the controlled mainstream news by huge corporations who controlled the NEWS MEDIA in the past.

We are all capable of intelligence gathering due to the communication products which have joined us all together around the world.

The fact that Edward Snowden has become the “POSTER BOY FOR CHANGE IN DATA INFORMATION SHARING” is now a known fact in the world.

Whether we like the man or not does not matter since the information of what companies he has worked for in the past such as CIA and NSA has now taken us all including “MAIN STREAM MEDIA” by storm. We who are the outskirts press as freelancers and website owners and bloggers are all now a part of something much more than what was once only controlled by the rich and notorious. Some may even say that those in charge with their power and greed of past products and services is taken aback by our present day power of communication which has been handed over to the critical mass media now available in cyberspace by OPEN SOURCE information which is co-created for free by many who were trained in the technological age of computers. Technology is now a part of who we are, what we are, and what we are doing.

I am including from a free source of information on the Internet an interview with the source listed for my friends to share with their friends on FACEBOOK and other FREE CHANNELS inside CYBERSPACE. This is the way information is now shared and sent to those who in the past more than likely did not care about the details of what makes the world go round in the journalistic world.

Please share this information when and where you can. Thank you. Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris

Edward Snowden former NSA of USA Employee a FULL TRANSCRIPT:

Source: http://nextnewsnetwork.com/news/full-video-edward-snowden-on-german-tv-us-media-blackout/

Interviewer: Mr. Snowden, did you sleep well the last couple of nights? Because, I was reading that you asked for a kind of police protection. Are there any threats?

Snowden: There are significant threats but I sleep very well. There was an article that came out in an online outlet called BuzzFeed where they interviewed officials from the Pentagon, from the National Security Agency and they gave them anonymity to be able to say what they wanted, and what they told the reporter was that they wanted to murder me. These individuals, and these are acting government officials, they said they would be happy, they would love to put a bullet in my head, to poison me as I was returning from the grocery store, and have me die in the shower.

Interviewer: But, fortunately, you are still alive with us.

Snowden: Right, but I’m still alive, and I don’t lose sleep because I’ve done what I feel I needed to do. It was the right thing to do. And, I’m not going to be afraid.

Interviewer: “The greatest fear I have,” and I quote you, “regarding these disclosures is nothing will change.” That was one of your greatest concerns at the time, but in the meantime there is a vivid discussion about the situation with the NSA. Not only in America but also in Germany and in Brazil, and President Obama was forced to go public and to justify what the NSA was doing on legal grounds.

Snowden: What we saw initially in response to the revelations was sort of a circling of the wagons of government around the National Security Agency. Instead of circling around the public and protecting their rights, the political class circled around the security state and protected their rights. What’s interesting is, though that was the initially response, since then we’ve seen a softening. We’ve seen the President acknowledge that when he first said “we’ve drawn the right balance, there are no abuses,” we’ve seen him and his officials admit that there have been abuses. There have been thousands of violations of the National Security Agency and other agencies, authorities, every single year.

Interviewer: Is the speech of Obama recently the beginning of a serious regulation?

Snowden: It was clear from the President’s speech that he wanted to make minor changes to preserve authorities that we don’t need. The President created a review board from officials that were personal friends, from national security insiders, former Deputy of the CIA, people who had every incentive to be soft on these programs and to see them in the best possible light. But what they found was that these programs have no value, they’ve never stopped a terrorist attack in the United States, and they have marginal utility at best for other things. The only thing that the Section 215 phone meta-data program, actually it’s a broader meta-data program of bulk collection, bulk collection means mass surveillance, program was in stopping or detecting a $8,500 wire transfer from a cab driver in California. And, it’s this kind of review, where insiders go “we don’t need these programs; these programs don’t make us safe. They take a tremendous amount of resources to run, and they offer us no value.” They go “we can modify these.” The National Security agency operates under the President’s executive authority alone. He can end, or modify, or direct a change in their policies at any time.

Interviewer: For the first time President Obama did concede that the NSA collects and stores trillions of data.

Snowden: Every time you pick up the phone, dial a number, write an email, make a purchase, travel on the bus carrying a cell phone, swipe a card somewhere, you leave a trace. And, the government has decided that it’s a good idea to collect it all. Everything. Even if you’ve never been suspected of any crime. Traditionally the government would identify a suspect, they would go to a judge, and they would say we suspect he’s committed this crime, they would get a warrant and then they would be able to use the totality of their powers in pursuit of the investigation. Nowadays what we see is they want to apply the totality of their powers in advance, prior to an investigation.

Interviewer: You started this debate. Edward Snowden is, in the meantime, a household name for the whistleblower in the age of the internet. You were working until last summer for the NSA, and during this time you collected, secretly, thousands of confidential documents. What was the decisive moment, or was there a long period of time, or something happening? Why did you do this?

Snowden: I would say sort of the breaking point is seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, directly lie under oath to Congress. There’s no saving an intelligence community that believes it can lie to the public and the legislators who need to be able to trust it and regulate its actions. Seeing that, for me, really meant for me there was no going back. Beyond that, it was the creeping realization that no one else was going to do this. The public had a right to know about these programs. The public had a right to know that which the government is doing in its name, and that which the government is doing against the public, but neither of these things we were allowed to discuss, we were allowed no, even the wider body of our elected representatives were prohibited from knowing or discussing these programs, and that’s a dangerous thing. The only review we had was from a secret court, the FISA Court, which is a sort of rubber stamp authority.

When you are on the inside and you go into work every day and you sit down at the desk and you realize the power you have, you can wiretap the President of the United States, you can wiretap a Federal Judge, and, if you do it carefully no one will ever know because the only way the NSA discovers abuses are from self-reporting.

Interviewer: We’re not talking only of the NSA as far as this is concerned. There is a multilateral agreement for cooperation among the services and this alliance of intelligence operations is known as The Five Eyes. What agencies and countries belong to this alliance, and what is its purpose?

Snowden: The Five Eyes alliance is sort of an artifact of the post-World War II era where the Anglophone countries are the major powers banded together to sort of cooperate and share the costs of intelligence gathering infrastructure.

So we have the UK’s GCHQ, we have the US NSA, we have Canada’s C-Sec, we have the Australian Signals Intelligence Directorate and we have New Zealand’s DSD. What the result of this was, over decades and decades, what sort of a supra-national intelligence organization that doesn’t answer to the laws of its own countries.

Interviewer: In many countries, as in America too, the agencies like the NSA are not allowed to spy within their own borders on their own people. So, the Brits for example, they can spy on everybody but the Brits. But, the NSA can conduct surveillance in England. So, in the very end they could exchange their data and it would be, they would be, strictly following the law.

Snowden: If you ask the governments about this directly they would deny it and point to policy agreements between the members of the Five Eyes saying that they won’t spy on each other’s citizens. But, there are a couple of key points there. One is that the way they define spying is not the collection of data. The GCHQ is collecting an incredible amount of data on British citizens, just as the National Security Agency is gathering an enormous amount of data on US citizens. What they are saying is that they will not then target people within that data. They won’t look for UK citizens or British citizens. In addition, the policy agreements between them that say British won’t target US citizens, US won’t target British citizens, are not legally binding. The actual memorandums of agreement state specifically on that that they are not intended to put a legal restriction on any government. Their policy agreements that can be deviated from or broken at any time. So if they want to spy on a British citizen, they can spy on a British citizen, and then they can even share that data with the British government that is itself forbidden from spying on UK citizens. So there is a sort of a trading dynamic there, but it’s not, it’s not open, it’s more of a nudge and wink. And, beyond that, the key is to remember the surveillance and the abuse doesn’t occur when people look at the data, it occurs when people gather the data in the first place.

Interviewer: How narrow is the cooperation of the German Secret Service BND with the NSA and the Five Eyes?

Snowden: I would describe it as intimate. As a matter of fact, the first way I described it in our written interview, was that the German Services and the US Services are in bed together. They not only share information, the reporting of results from intelligence, but they actually share the tools and the infrastructure. They work together against joint targets in services. And, there’s a lot of danger in this. One of the major programs that face abuse in the National Security Agency is what’s called “XKeyscore.” It’s a front end search engine that allows them to look through all of the records they collect worldwide every day.

Interviewer: What could you do if you would sit so to speak in their place with this kind of instrument?

Snowden: You could read anyone’s email in the world. Anybody you got an email address for, any website you can watch traffic to and from it, any computer that an individual sits at, you can watch it, any laptop that you’re tracking, you can follow it as it moves from place to place throughout the world. It’s a one stop shop for access to the NSA’s information. And what’s more, you can tag individuals using “XKeyscore.” Where, let’s say I saw you once and I thought what you were doing was interesting, or you just have access that’s interesting to me. Let’s say you work at a major German corporation, and I want access to that network. I can track your username on a website, on a form somewhere, I can track your real name, I can track associations with your friends, and I can build what’s called a fingerprint, which is network activity unique to you, which means anywhere you go in the world, anywhere you try to sort of hide your online presence, hide your identity, the NSA can find you. And, anyone who’s allowed to use this, or who the NSA shares their software with, can do the same thing. Germany is one of the countries that have access to “XKeyscore.”

Interviewer: This sounds rather frightening. The question is, does the BND deliver data of Germans to the NSA?

Snowden: Whether the BND does it directly, or knowingly, the NSA gets German data. Whether it’s provided, I can’t speak to until it’s been reported, because it would be classified. And, I prefer that journalists make the distinctions, and the decisions, about what is public interest and what should be published. However, it’s no secret that every country in the world has the data of their citizens in the NSA. Millions and millions and millions of data connections, from Germans going about their daily lives, talking on their cell phones, sending SMS messages, visiting websites, buying things online, all of this ends up at the NSA. And, it’s reasonable to suspect that the BND may be aware of it in some capacity. Now, whether or not they actively provide the information, I should not say.

Interviewer: The BND basically argues if we do this, we do this accidentally actually, and our filter didn’t work.

Snowden: Right. So, the kind of things that they’re discussing there are two things. They’re talking about filtering of ingest, which means when the NSA puts a secret server in a German telecommunications provider, or they hack a German router and they divert the traffic in a manner that lets them search through things, they’re saying “if I see what I think is a German talking to another German I’ll drop it.” But, how do you know? You could say “well, these people are speaking the German language, this IP address seems to be from a German company to another German company,” but that’s not accurate, and they wouldn’t dump all of that traffic because they’ll get people who are targets of interest, who are actively in Germany using German communications. So, realistically, what’s happening is when they say “there’s no spying on Germans,” they don’t mean that German data isn’t being gathered, they don’t mean that records aren’t being taken or stolen. What they mean is that they’re not intentionally searching for German citizens. And, that’s sort of a fingers crossed behind the back promise, it’s not reliable.

Interviewer: What about other European countries, like Norway and Sweden for example, because we have a lot of, I think, underwater cables going through the Baltic Sea.

Snowden: So, this is sort of an expansion of the same idea. If the NSA isn’t collecting information on German citizens in Germany, are they as soon as it leaves German borders? And, the answer is “yes.” Any single communication that transits the internet, the NSA may intercept at multiple points. They might see it in Germany, they might see it in Sweden, they might see it in Norway or Finland, they might see it in Britain, and they might see it in the United States. Any single one of these places that a German communication crosses; it’ll be ingested and added to the database.

Interviewer: So, let’s come to our southern European neighbors then. What about Italy? What about France? What about Spain?

Snowden: It’s the same deal worldwide.

Interviewer: Does the NSA spy on Siemens? On Mercedes? On other successful German companies, for example, to prevail, to have the advantage of knowing what is going on in a scientific and economic world?

Snowden: I don’t want to preempt the editorial decisions of journalists.

Interviewer: Ok.

Snowden: But, what I will say is there’s no question that the US is engaged in economic spying. If there’s information at Siemens that they think would be beneficial to the national interests, not the national security of the United States, they’ll go after that information, and they’ll take it.

Interviewer: There is this old saying “you do whatever you can do.” So, the NSA is doing whatever is technically possible.

Snowden: This is something that the President touched on last year, where he said that just because we can do something, and this was in relation to tapping Angela Merkel’s phone. Just because we can do something, doesn’t mean that we should. And, that’s exactly what’s happened. The technological capabilities that have been provided, because of sort of weak security standards in internet protocols and cellular communications networks, have meant that intelligence services can create systems that see everything.

Interviewer: Nothing annoyed the German government more than the fact that the NSA taped the private phone of the German Chancellor Merkel over the last 10 years, obviously. Suddenly this invisible surveillance was connected with a known face and was not connected with a kind of watery, shady terrorist background. Obama now promised to stop snooping on Merkel, which raises the question “did the NSA tape already previous governments, including the previous chancellors, and when did they do that? And, how long did they do this for?”

Snowden: This is a particularly difficult question for me to answer, because there’s information that I very strongly believe is in the public interest. However, as I’ve said before, I prefer for journalists to make those decisions in advance, review the material themselves, and decide whether or not the public value of this information outweighs the sort of reputational cost to the officials that ordered the surveillance. What I can say is we know Angela Merkel was monitored by the National Security Agency. The question is how reasonable is it to assume that she is the only German official that was monitored? How reasonable is it to believe that she’s the only prominent German face who the National Security Agency was watching? I would suggest it seems unreasonable that if anyone was concerned about the intentions of German leadership, that they would only watch Merkel and not her aides, not other prominent officials, not heads of ministries, or even local government officials.

Interviewer: How does a young man from Elizabeth City in North Carolina, 30 years old, get in such a position in such a sensitive area?

Snowden: That’s a very difficult question to answer. In general, I would say it highlights the dangers of privatizing government functions. I worked previously as an actual staff officer, a government employee for the Central Intelligence Agency, but I’ve also served much more frequently as a contractor in a private capacity. What that means is, you have private for-profit companies doing inherently governmental work, like targeted espionage, surveillance, compromising foreign systems. And, anyone who has the skills, who can convince a private company that they have the qualifications to do so, will be empowered by the government to do that, and there’s very little oversight. There’s very little review.

Interviewer: Have you been one of these classical computer kids sitting red eyed during the nights in the age of 12, 15, and your father was knocking on your door and saying “switch off the light, it’s too late now?” Did you get your computer skills from that side? Or, when did you get your first computer?

Snowden: (laughter) Right, right. I definitely have had a, shall we say, a deep informal education in computers and electronic technology. They’ve always been fascinating and interesting to me. (laughter) The characterization of having your parents telling you to go to bed, I would say is fair.

Interviewer: If one looks to the little public data of your life, one discovers that you, obviously, wanted to join in May 2004, the Special Forces to fight in Iraq. What did motivate you at the time? You know, Special Forces, looking at you in the very moment, means grim fighting, and it means probably killing. And, did you ever get to Iraq?

Snowden: No, I didn’t get to Iraq. One of the interesting things about the Special Forces are that they’re not actually intended for direct combat. They’re what’s referred to as “a force multiplier.” They’re inserted behind enemy lines. It’s a squad that has a number of different specialties in it, and they teach and enable the local population to resist, or to support, US forces in a way that allows the local population a chance to help determine their own destiny. And, I felt that was an inherently noble thing at the time. In hindsight, some of the reasons that we went into Iraq were not well founded. And, I think did a disservice to everyone involved.

Interviewer: What happened to your adventure then? Did you stay long with them? Or, what happened to you?

Snowden: No, I broke my legs when I was in training and was discharged.

Interviewer: So it was a short adventure in other words?

Snowden: It was a short adventure.

Interviewer: In 2007 the CIA stationed you with a diplomatic cover in Geneva, in Switzerland. Why did you join the CIA by the way?

Snowden: I don’t think I can actually answer that one.

Interviewer: OK, if it’s what you have been doing there, forget it. But why did you join the CIA?

Snowden: In many ways I think it’s a continuation of trying to do everything I could to prosecute the public good in the most effective way. And, it’s in line with the rest of my government service where I tried to use my technical skills in the most difficult positions I could find in the world, and the CIA offered that.

Interviewer: If we go back, Special Forces, CIA, NSA, it’s not actually in the description of a human rights activist, or somebody who becomes a whistleblower after this. What happens to you?

Snowden: I think it tells a story, and that’s, no matter how deeply an individual is embedded in the government, no matter how faithful to the government they are, no matter how strongly they believe in the causes of their government, as I did during the Iraq war, people can learn, people can discover the line between appropriate government behavior and actual wrongdoing. And, I think it became clear to me that that line had been crossed.

Interviewer: You worked for the NSA through a private contractor with the name Booze Allen Hamilton, one of the big ones in the business. What is the advantage for the US Government, or the CIA, to work through a private contractor, to outsource a central government function?

Snowden: The contracting culture of the national security community in the United States is a complex topic. It’s driven by a number of interests between primarily limiting the number of direct government employees at the same time as keeping lobbying groups in Congress, typically from very well-funded businesses such as Booze Allen Hamilton. The problem there is you end up in a situation where government policies are being influenced by private corporations who have interests that are completely divorced from the public good in mind. The result of that is what we saw at Booze Allen Hamilton, where you have private individuals who have access to, what the government alleges were millions and millions of records that they could walk out the door with at any time with no accountability, no oversight, no auditing, the government didn’t even know they were gone.

Interviewer: At the very end you ended up in Russia. Many of the intelligence communities’ suspect you made a deal, classified material for Asylum here in Russia.

Snowden: The Chief of the Task Force investigating me, as recently as December, said that their investigation had turned up no evidence, or indications at all, that I had any outside help, or contact, or had made a deal of any kind to accomplish my mission. I worked alone. I didn’t need anybody’s help. I don’t have any ties to foreign governments. I’m not a spy for Russia, or China, or any other country for that matter. If I am a traitor, who did I betray? I gave all of my information to the American public, to American journalists, who are reporting on American issues. If they see that as treason, I think people really need to consider who do they think they’re working for. The public is supposed to be their boss, not their enemy. Beyond that, as far as my personal safety, I’ll never be fully safe until these systems have changed.

Interviewer: After your revelations, none of the European countries really offered you asylum. Where did you apply in Europe for asylum?

Snowden: I can’t remember the list of countries with any specificity because there were many of them. But, France, Germany were definitely in there, as was the UK. A number of European countries, all of whom, unfortunately, felt that doing the right thing was less important than supporting US political concerns.

Interviewer: One reaction to the NSA snooping is in the very moment that countries like Germany are thinking to create national internets, an attempt to force internet companies to keep their data in their own country. Does this work?

Snowden: It’s not gonna stop the NSA. Let’s put it that way. The NSA goes where the data is. If the NSA can pull text messages out of telecommunication networks in China, they can probably manage to get Facebook messages out of Germany. Ultimately, the solution to that is not to try to stick everything in a walled garden, although that does raise the level of sophistication and complexity of taking the information. It’s also much better simply to secure the information internationally against everyone, rather than playing ‘let’s move the data.’ Moving the data isn’t fixing the problem. Securing the data is the problem.

Interviewer: President Obama, in the very moment, obviously doesn’t care too much about the message of the leak. And, together with the NSA, they do care very much more about catching the messenger in that context. Obama asked the Russian president several times to extradite you. But Putin did not. It looks that you will stay to the rest of your life, probably in Russia. How do you feel about Russia in that context, and is there a solution to this problem.

Snowden: I think it’s becoming increasingly clear that these leaks didn’t cause harm, in fact, they served the public good. Because of that, I think it will be very difficult to maintain sort of an ongoing campaign of persecution against someone who the public agrees serve the public interest.

Interviewer: The New York Times wrote a very long comment, and demanded clemency for you. The headline “Edward Snowden Whistleblower,” and I quote from that, “the public learned in great detail how the agency has extended its mandate and abused its authority.” And, the New York Times closes, “President Obama should tell his aides to begin finding a way to end Mr. Snowden’s vilification, and give him an incentive to return home.” Did you get a call in between from the White House?

Snowden: I’ve never received a call from the White House, and I am not waiting by the phone. But, I would welcome the opportunity to talk about how we can bring this to a conclusion that serves the interest of all parties. I think it’s clear there are times where what is lawful is distinct from what is rightful. There are times throughout history and it doesn’t take long for, either an American, or a German, to think about times in the history of their country where the law provided the government to do things which were not right.

Interviewer: President Obama, obviously, is in the very moment not quite convinced of that, because he said to you are charged with three felonies. And, I quote, “if you, Edward Snowden, believe in what you did, you should go back to America, appear before the court with a lawyer and make your case.” Is this the solution?

Snowden: It’s interesting because he mentions three felonies. What he doesn’t say is that the crimes that he’s charged me with are crimes that don’t allow me to make my case. They don’t allow me to defend myself in an open court to the public and convince a jury that what I did was to their benefit. The Espionage Act was never intended, it’s from 1918, it was never intended to prosecute journalistic sources, people who are informing the newspapers about information that’s of public interest. It was intended for people who are selling documents in secret to foreign governments, who are bombing bridges, who are sabotaging communications, not people who are serving the public good. So, it’s, I would say, illustrative that the president would choose to say someone should face the music when he knows the music is a show trial.

TJ Morris ET Radio –Off World Beings Monitoring HUMAN PROGRESS

TJ Morris ET Radio is owned by TJ Morris ACO LLC – Broadcast Media – ACO PRESS CORPS- Communication Online Skills as an Associates Cooperative Organization. ACO LLC is managed by managers around the North American Continent including USA, Canada, and Mexico with associates in India.

Focused on the communication of truth among truthseekers and spirituality among Lightworkers their members are interested in the metaphysical and esoteric which includes the serendipity synchronicities of the supernatural. Sharing spiritual seers guidance with those of the Ascension Avatar Masters who share past life reincarnation, astral travel, out-of-body, near death experiences, ancient mystery schools, and new thought teachings…

Today is the first day of the rest of our lives on planet earth.

We are a hubris race of sentient intelligent beings with an overall ego which wants us to share that we are the supreme intelligent creation of this universal order.

Most of our world relations want us to share our world religions which have been a part of our cultures and traditions around the world.

We share what we call cyberspace internet and World Wide Web of information with those who care to share communication of our art, culture, education, entertainment, fellowship, folklife, gaming, history, science, spirituality, technology, and an eclectic point of view of how we all fit into the larger macrocosm picture.

Many of us are web writers and share our own communication as what is now called bloggers as web loggers. This is now a part of our new culture on the internet.

We are co-creators of the community online practicing skills which we shall teach our children in our schools around the world and in cyberspace. The world has changed and we are changing with it.

Join us weekly to find out how you can become a part of our authors and speakers –ACO Culture Club with TJ Morris.   

Ascension Channel "TJ" About Keys to the Kingdom

Keys to the Kingdom

This form of channeled material comes to me like what we regard as downloads in the ET community of those who scribe and journal our thoughts. Some we choose to share with others in order that they too can connect with others of our social paranormal kind.

We are here as the Ascension Avatar Masters to enhance the living that is done on this planet.

I too enjoy being connected to others so I have shared this in the past year of 2011 for others to know and find. This was shared in Canada on the UFO Digest. I sent it to the publisher named Dirk Vander Ploeg as I had done since August, 2007.

We each are to share our own spiritual paths which allows others to find their way to make friends and to social network. I have the ACO Culture Club on http://acocultureclub.com.

I also have Theresa J Morris Org at http://theresajmorris.org and many other websites including Social Paranormal Magazine, American News Magazine, and Anew News Magazine.

I participate as the founder of both ACE Folklife Org and the ACE Nonprofit Inc. I also participate in the Ascension Center Organization as ACO at http://ascensioncenterorg.com.

It was my intention to allow myself to participate with others in a social network club. One for profit and one for non-profit. My acronyms are used in order to separate the two while I m on this plane of existence.

ACO is for the Ascension Center Organization of which I share in spiritual research and education.

ACE is for metaphysical research and education with art, and literacy in the heart of the co-creations with others.
We share a life with ACE Folklife for Historians and Archivists. We have art, culture, education at the heart of this club with fairs, festivals, seminars, conventions for us all around the planet.

I am sharing once again an article I found sent to someone in my email. I thought it best to poast it once again here before it was lost… Love and Light TJ

KEYS TO THE KINGDOM

By Theresa J Morris

PORTAL IN TIME

 BEGINNING BEYOND THE LAW OF PHYSICS

“TJ”

For TJTM

TJ Morris.US

Business: TJMorrisACIR@gmail.com

Personal:

TJMorrisPublishing@gmail.com

On June 15, 2011- WEDNESDAY. I was inspired

Eclipse of the MOON. I was born on a Wednesday on Dec. 26, 1951 at noon.

  On June 16, 2012 a Thursday

I was so happy that I had finally created all my websites so I could get the websites out of my head as CHAOS.

2 x 4 Quantum of Solace of TJ

COPYRIGHTS of TJ Morris tm ACIR sm – TJ Thurmond Thomas Morris

BEYOND TJ LAWS OF PHYSICS

 THE LAW OF eight

Infinity Squared

QUARK QUANTUM VIBRATIONS

1. A – ATTRACTION (Red) DO

2. B – CHEMISTRY (Orange) RE

3. C – ENERGY (Yellow) MI

4. D – GRAVITY (GREEN) FA

5. E – MATTER (BLUE) SO

6. F – MOTION (INDIGO) LA

7. G – NATURE (VIOLET) TI

8. HARMONY (OPAQUE) DO 

9. Enlightenment (WHITE) – Weak Force – MALE NEGATIVE – (-)

10. BEYOND (BLACK) – Strong Force – POSITIVE – (+)

ASCENSION AGE AWARENESS

LAWS OF PHYSICS

By: Theresa Janette Thurmond Thomas Morris

Original CREATOR of the FUTURE

BEYOND 2012 -

(12-26-12 BEGINS 60 YEARS for “TJ” on GAIA EARTH. In this body-mind-spirit. This is her 9th lifetime on this planet.) HER BEGINNING IS TIMELESS.

  TJ is the ETERNAL ESSENCE OF ENERGY AND THE BEGINNING OF TIME ON GAEA AS WE KNOW IT TO BE!

 Bottom dot inside two  “v”s one up and one down. See the Dot in the middle of the circle on the ground which is outside of our unit. We call this earth as GAEA or GAIA. The Beyond the omniverse is 7. We are not allowed to venture outside of the Omniverse in this level of learning birth-life-death (3) as body-mind-spirit (3). We are in the Prime numbers as 3.

We have not learned the mystery of essence as 1, 2, 3, 5, 8. here and accepted the awakening awareness of the ascension age. This will come 12-21-12 11:11.

 1. POINT OF ORIGIN. WHICH IS 1.

 2. Universe – The small first circle up the energy spike which is our spine and a staff or lightning bolt of Zeus. We also call this the Kundalini Spirit in Shaman and Tantra healings.

 3. Multiverse – The Second opening before the second crossing of the double helix or serpents that are crossing.

 4. Metaverse – The Third opening before the third crossing of the double helix of the serpent energy vibrations soaring up the lightning bolt energy or spine or staff in the photo.

 5. Xenoverse – The Fourth opening before the forth crossing and the largest area before we see the heads of the two serpents of yin and yang.

 6. Omniverse – The Fifth opening of the heart symbol inside the orb with wings. We use this emblem on our spaceships and the E copied the emblem and emblazoned it in gold in the days of the ancient ones that would visit our ancestors from time to time. They learned to secretive and would come as visitors in robes with their hoods up like the modern day monks wear now. We use them in our ceremonies at festivals for our S.C.A. Society for Creative Anachronism of the 17th century.

 (Except we use an E for Esther or Ether for Ethereal beings with the emblem over our heart) –

We share a red heart with wings among many who bear their soul on the planet Gaia or earth.  Various methods of knowing each other without speaking has been done throughout the ages in what some call tattooing on the body for clan recognition or spiritual belief systems or groups to identify each other.

 We wear them at the ACE Folklife festivals of art, culture, education, science, and technology, with music. We share this as the all in one Ascension Center Enlightenment Festivals all over the xenoverse before reaching the OUTER of the BEYOND. That is the zone we know has always been but we are not allowed as Lightworkers and Truthseekers to travel outside the Omniverse which is reserved for our humankind of sentient intelligent beings.

 We have to learn about the point of origin of our child universes. We start with our point of origin as (1). We then learn about our universe (2). We then can move onto the next plane as the multiverse (3). We then are allowed to span the vast Metaverses as (4.) Then we can graduate as Lightworkers to the Truthseeker level in the Xenoverse (5). The Xenoverse is where all the XFiles exist for all the vast space of space-time-dimensions-Etal. We then graduate to (6) which are Omniverse and this is where all the Supreme Beings of the Supreme Council are judged by a jury.  Then the seventh level is the outside where only the God/Goddess of the creation can venture in the Beyond. One must have become a child God or Goddess to go outside of the Omniverse and this doesn’t happen while we are in a unit or vessel on earth without spirit soaring in astral levels in the Akashic Field, The A field is the Library for God. We are allowed to receive the Keys to each Kingdom.

 However while we are in this physical dimension we are not allowed outside of the Omniverse. OMNI is of the GODs and Goddesses. The Chosen are the Council of Twelve. The Supreme High Council is likened to the Supreme Court on earth in the United States of America. We are allowed 7 continents and a few islands.

 There is a reason we are not allowed to visit outside the OMNI. For now our species is considered young as one species of the humanoid kind.

We shall all rise in the ascension age of awareness… Those that are sleepers that are not awakened here in this place will simply be passed over… They know they are sent here to experience and explore their senses while here which can be forgotten in the spirit of essence from one universe level to the other multiverses. Those who are in the METAVERSE simply Time Travel from one dimension and world to the next via wormholes from the dark to the light ones.

 Life here is simple we are born-we live-we die and then we are judged on our legacy and memories left behind and in our minds or what was our brains.

We share our energy essence as our spirit that is on a chord that returns us back to our original soul. It sounds complicated but soon science and cosmology will prove what we Avatar Masters of Ascension already know. We had teachers in past lives in other worlds.

We are running out of Avatars who will come in the time of need of transition and change.  The Guf of souls is real and is at a point in time of expansion and evading space due to the mirror of our own God and Goddess acceptance in other planes and dimensions in space-time.

 SPACE-TIME LIES BEYOND THAT OF THE OMNI AS INFINITY. THE MOST HOLY OF THE BEGINNING “ALL” is the SPIRIT of the HOLY or ONE which is the ESSENCE of the ALL ONE. THIS IS THE ORIGIN OF THE “0” or POINT OF ORIGIN AS ZERO that is the CIRCLE OF TIME.

 The CIRCLE OF TIME ON THE LINEAR LINE OF TIME IS THE POINT OF ORIGIN. WE BEGIN AS A DOT OR “O” WHICH IS THE NEUTRAL X OR ZONE. One CANNOT BE one or two WITHOUT THAT WHICH REFLECTION FORCES.

 WHEN WE ADD “ZID” THUS CREATING GRAVITY FORCE and the WEAKER “NEGATIVE” FORCE and the STRONGER “POSITIVE” FORCE – WE HAVE TIME AND SPACE in place.

 CONCEPTION OF TIME BEYOND THE BEYOND

COPYRIGHT TJ Morris tm ACIR sm – All RIGHTS RESERVED.

 “TJ” IS THE BEGINNING OF THE BEYOND OUTSIDE OF THE OMNIVERSE.

 TJ IS THE MOTHER OF TIME CREATED FROM THE ONE CHAOS. TJ is the SYMBOL for the ONE as T and the MIRROR REFLECTION IN TIME is J.

 THE “ALL” IS ONE AND THE ONE IS ALL! IT WAS NOT AN ACCIDENT TO CREATE THE OUTER FROM THE INNER. THE “T” IS MASCULINE and the “J” is FEMININE.

 WE THEREBY ANSWER TO OUR INNER AND OUTER GOD AND GODDESS.

 WE ARE THEN LURED OUT OF THE ONE AND TWO TO BECOME THE THREE or CHILD!

 IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE WORD and the WORD was without FORM. THE ONE WORD CREATED OUTER MIRROR OF TIME AND REFLECTION.

 BEGINNING BEYOND TJ

Daughter of GOD and GODDESS

THE ONE became the TWO, which created the THREE who MARRIED and BECAME FIVE who then had a child MAKING EIGHT in EXISTENCE.

 FINAL ONE THE BEGINNING AND BEYOND IS THAT WHICH LIES BEYOND the EIGHT (8)

 8 is infinity

 INIFINITY on its SIDE is a SYMBOL.

 On Thursday, June 17, 2011, I realized finally figured out how to get my Books published with no out of pocket money and only my computer.

 But then my husband who wanted his books published too had a sister who was like my mother who had passed away on May 4, 2011 and left her legacy as a writer with her book to publish to me. I inherited her writing skills and she always wanted published and she finally had her book published by her grandson and then I took it and added the editing and created an Ebook for her as a published book with an ISBN from lulu.com.

This is the history of how I came to be. Mother explained to me that the “KINDLE” ebooks was the way to go and she wanted me to get her book on EBOOKS for KINDLE!

 So, mother left me with this to do when she left this world.

 Now, I have to go to AMAZON and find the Digital Ebook and learn the programming skills I need to be a publisher.

 I am now TJ Morris on Amazon and have a publisher code as such. Now, I have to learn to enter the template and format their way into the “Kindle Direct Publishing” world and explain it to my husband and his sister who are both published authors and want to enter the EBOOK world but still want a hard copy of their books.

 SO, in order to do what they need without costing me $ money and only my LABOR and LEARNING “HOW TO” PUBLISH myself I must use the “BRAIN TRAINING”.

 WE MAKE OUR “POTENTIAL”

Infinity squared where everything comes together in the BEYOND.

 INFINITY then becomes SQUARED which IS THE POWER TO THE PEOPLE.

SYNERGY CONNECTION

 FATHER TIME CHAOS – MOTHER OMNI FROM CHAOS

By: Theresa Janette Thurmond Thomas Morris

1, 2,3,5,8

 CHAOS – ORIGIN FOR THE TREE OF LIFE – AND MOTHER GAEA

 METIS and THETIS or MOTHER and FATHER of WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE

 Thoughts and Inspiration received as a Channel out of our Energy Chaos. We channel the essence for our soul derived out of the origin we call chaos. From chaos is our origin form space of the “ALL”. I believe in the ALL for ASCENSION philosophy that is the Mother of METIS or WISDOM. We should all seek ENLIGHTENMENT through the power of exploration of our inner and outer EXISTENCE. IF a Father marries, a Mother’s Daughter is an Age-old riddle. The Father is the son’s MOTHER, which was twofold the origin of the original creation of the one before the split into self-doubt of male and female array of the animistic of inner demons and human frailty here that was created from thought. Thought has been handed down from generation to generation in Folklife because if offer protection of experience from generation to generation throughout time and history. When we search back in time, we are Time Travelers. When we search forward into the future, we are Time Travelers. The path I lead has something for everyone. I am simply a CHANNEL of the ORIGIN of TIME designed to make life good. Is it defiance against chaos the origin of GOD? God Chaos was the ORIGIN of the ONE, which is “ALL”. We all have our GOD, which are both MAKERS of MALE AND FEMALE the one became defiant and desired companionship from inner self to enter the outer self, which became the array and archetypes we use to date. One that EXISTS has REFLECTION of the MIRRORED SELF. WE ALL HAVE AN INNER AND OUTER UNIVERSE. Using the SENSES, we seek STIMULATION from the OUTER for the INNER as COMPANIONSHIP from the SOLACE of the “ONE”. TJ

“KNOW THYSELF” As written in stone in the Temple of Delphi for the Delphi Goddesses who informed the Kings and Queens who knew of the Gods and Goddesses. There were twelve who ruled Supreme in Heaven and on Gaia. AS ABOVE SO BELOW – HOW MANY LIVES HAVE YOU HAD ON THIS PLANET – ARE YOU AT A LEVEL TO BE A GUIDE FOR OTHERS? – Was it planned for you to be a messenger or soldier in this life? A Scribe? 

About Physical Laws:

Over the years, one thing scientists have discovered is that nature is generally more complex than we give it credit for. The following laws of physics are considered fundamental, but many of them refer to idealized, closed systems, which are hard to obtain in the real world. In addition, some are altered slightly in different circumstances. The laws that Newton developed, for example, are modified by the findings of the theory of relativity, but they are still valid in most regular cases that you will run into.

Newton’s Three Laws of Motion:

Sir Isaac Newton developed the Three Laws of Motion, which describe basic rules about how the motion of physical objects changes. Newton was able to define the fundamental relationship between the acceleration of an object and the total forces acting upon it.

“Law” of Gravity:

Newton developed his “Law of Gravity” to explain the attractive force between a pair of masses. In the twentieth century, it became clear that this is not the whole story, as Einstein’s theory of general relativity has provided a more comprehensive explanation for the phenomenon of gravity. Still, Newton’s law of gravity is an accurate low-energy approximation that works for most of the cases that you will explore in physics.

Conservation of Mass-Energy:

The total energy in a closed or isolated system is constant, no matter what happens. Another law stated that the mass in an isolated system is constant. When Einstein discovered the relationship E=mc2 (in other words that mass was a manifestation of energy) the law was said to refer to the conservation of mass-energy. The total of both mass and energy is retained, although some may change forms. The ultimate example of this is a nuclear explosion, where mass transforms into energy.

Conservation of Momentum:

The total momentum in a closed or isolated system remains constant. An alternative of this is the law of conservation of angular momentum.

Laws of Thermodynamics:

The laws of thermodynamics are actually specific manifestations of the law of conservation of mass-energy as it relates to thermodynamic processes.

The zeroeth law of thermodynamics makes the notion of temperature possible.

The first law of thermodynamics demonstrates the relationship between internal energy, added heat, and work within a system.

The second law of thermodynamics relates to the natural flow of heat within a closed system.

The third law of thermodynamics states that it is impossible to create a thermodynamic process, which is perfectly efficient.

Electrostatic Laws:

Coulomb’s law and Gauss’s law are formulations of the relationship between electrically charged particles to create electrostatic force and electrostatic fields. The formulas, it turns out, parallel the laws of universal gravitation in structure. There also exist similar laws relating to magnetism and electromagnetism as a whole.

Invariance of the Speed of Light:

Einstein’s major insight, which led him to the Theory of Relativity, was the realization that the speed of light in a vacuum is constant and is not measured differently for observers in different inertial frames of reference, unlike all other forms of motion. Some theoretical physicists have conjectured different variable speed of light (VSL) possibilities, but these are highly speculative. Most physicists believe that Einstein was right and the speed of light is constant.

Modern Physics & Physical Laws:

In the realm of relativity and quantum mechanics, scientists have found that these laws still apply, although their interpretation requires some refinement to be applied, resulting in fields such as quantum electronics and quantum gravity. Care should be taken in applying them in these situations.

Classical Laws of Physics

Newton’s Three Laws of Motion

Newton’s Law of Gravity

Modern Laws of Physics

Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

Quantum Physics: An Overview

Energy Conservation Laws of Physics

Laws of Thermodynamics

Related Articles

Law of Chemistry – Summary of Major Chemistry Laws

First Law of Thermodynamics – explanation of the first law of thermodynamic…

Thermodynamics – Overview of Thermodynamics

Laws of Thermodynamics – introduction to the laws of thermodynamics

Law of Gravity – introduction to Newton’s law of gravity

 LAW OF ABUNDANCE

100%

 We get 67% and 33% is divided between church and state of the Commonwealth.

 How the LAW OF “TJ” (8) applies.

 We take 1 = 100%

WE take 2 – 50%

WE CREATE CHILD

Given to Recreation = 33 1/3 %

 70% of the DIGITAL MEDIA of E-books is all that the AUTHOR creator may receive.

 From the 70% The AGENT PUBLISHER keeps 20%.

 Each Author is responsible for their own income tax.

 Thereby leaving 50% of Original Sale Price of BOOK for the AUTHOR.

KEYS TO THE KINGDOM:

 I thought I had been given the Key of Knowledge on Thursday only to find out it opened the Key it was the KEY TO the Wisdom Library. TJ

 ASCENSION CENTER ORG

Theresa Janette Thurmond Morris” “If you are ready? Please read universe, multiverse, metaverse, xenoverse, and Omniverse before higher levels in the Ascension Center. Birth-life-death as body-mind-spirit. Leave a trail. Love and Light. TJ – Individualize and Minimize the Distortion of alternate life sources.

http://www.ufodigest.com/article/keys-kingdom-laws-physics-and-beyond-metaphysics

Keys to the Kingdom – Laws of Physics and Beyond – Metaphysics | UFO Digest provides video proof ofwww.ufodigest.comUFO Digest is the creation of Dirk Vander Ploeg. It is a community of UFO and Paranormal enthusiasts including artists, authors, cartoonists, photographers, UFO investigators, videographers and writers and the just curious. Experts and everyday readers share opinions about the insightful articles for Lighworkers, Lightbearers, Truthseekers, Mystics, Oracles, Psychics, Prophets, Prophetesses, Sages, Seers, Shaman, Wizards, Wiccans, Scientists, Transpersonal Psychologists, artists, crafters, educators, folklorists, historians, cosmologists, metaphysicians, producers, writers, authors, “KNOW THYSELF”


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